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nucleotides the building blocks of RNA or DNA

eukaryotic describing an organism that has cells containing nuclei the larger pieces to move more easily the longer the gel runs. Typically such gels are run overnight.

Once separated, large DNA pieces, such as complete genes, can be isolated for further experiments. They can be cloned into a bacterium, sequenced, or amplified by polymerase chain reaction. see also Blotting; Cloning Genes; DNA Microarrays; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Proteins; Proteomics; Purification of DNA; Sequencing DNA.

Linnea Fletcher


Bloom, Mark V., Greg A. Freyer, and David A. Micklos. Laboratory DNA Science: An Introduction to Recombinant DNA Techniques and Methods of Genome Analysis. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1996.


Genes are functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins or RNA. Genes also act as units of heredity, transferring the same instructions from parent to offspring. The nature, structure, and regulation of genes has been a central topic of scientific research for more than 100 years.

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