epistasis supression of a characteristic of one gene by the action of another gene


Hartwell, Leland H., et al. Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Lewis, Ricki. Human Genetics, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Internet Resource

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. <>.


The roles of genes and environment in the determination of intelligence have been controversial for more than 100 years. Studies of the question have often been marred by untested assumptions, poor design, and even racism, faults that more modern studies have striven to avoid. Nonetheless, examining the biology of intelligence is an enterprise that continues to be fraught with difficulty, and there remains no real consensus even on how to define the term.

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