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Individual Genetic Variation 191

Information Systems Manager 192

Inheritance, Extranuclear 194

Inheritance Patterns 199

Intelligence 207

Internet 211

Photo Credits 215

Glossary 219

Topical Outline 237

Index 243

VOLUME 3_

For Your Reference v

List of Contributors xiii

Laboratory Technician 1

Legal Issues 3

Linkage and Recombination 4

Mapping 11

Marker Systems 15

Mass Spectrometry 18

McClintock, Barbara 21

McKusick, Victor 22

Meiosis 24

Mendel, Gregor 30

Mendelian Genetics 32

Metabolic Disease 37

Methylation 46

Microbiologist 50

Mitochondrial Diseases 51

Mitochondrial Genome 55

Mitosis 57

Model Organisms 60

Molecular Anthropology 62

Molecular Biologist 70

Morgan, Thomas Hunt 72

Mosaicism 76

Muller, Hermann 80

Multiple Alleles 82

Muscular Dystrophy 83

Mutagen 87

Mutagenesis 89

Mutation 93

Mutation Rate 98

Nature of the Gene, History 101

Nomenclature 106

Nondisjunction 108

Nucleases 112

Nucleotide 115

Nucleus 119

Oncogenes 127

Operon 131

Overlapping Genes 135

Patenting Genes 136

Pedigree 138

Pharmaceutical Scientist 142

Pharmacogenetics and

Pharmacogenomics 144

Physician Scientist 147

Plant Genetic Engineer 149

Plasmid 150

Pleiotropy 153

Polymerase Chain Reaction 154

Polymorphisms 159

Polyploidy 163

Population Bottleneck 167

Population Genetics 171

Population Screening 175

Post-translational Control 178

Prenatal Diagnosis 182

Prion 187

Privacy 190

Probability 193

Protein Sequencing 196

Proteins 198

Proteomics 205

Pseudogenes 209

Psychiatric Disorders 213

Public Health, Genetic Techniques in .. 216

Purification of DNA 220

Photo Credits 223

Glossary 227

Topical Outline 245

Index 251

VOLUME 4_

For Your Reference v

List of Contributors xiii

Quantitative Traits 1

Reading Frame 4

Recombinant DNA 5

Repetitive DNA Sequences 7

Replication 12

Reproductive Technology 19

Reproductive Technology: Ethical Issues . 26

Restriction Enzymes 31

Retrovirus 34

Reverse Transcriptase 39

Ribosome 42

Ribozyme 44

RNA 46

RNA Interference 54

RNA Processing 57

Rodent Models 60

Roundworm: Caenorhabditis elegans 62

Sanger, Fred 64

Science Writer 65

Selection 67

Sequencing DNA 69

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency ... 74

Sex Determination 78

Sexual Orientation 83

Signal Transduction 85

Speciation 91

Statistical Geneticist 93

Statistics 95

Tay-Sachs Disease 98

Technical Writer 102

Telomere 104

Transcription 106

Transcription Factors 112

Transduction 117

Transformation 121

Transgenic Animals 124

Transgenic Microorganisms 127

Transgenic Organisms: Ethical Issues .. 129

Transgenic Plants 132

Translation 135

Transplantation 139

Transposable Genetic Elements 143

Triplet Repeat Disease 148

Tumor Suppressor Genes 153

Twins 155

Viroids and Virusoids 162

Virus 164

Watson, James 171

X Chromosome 173

Y Chromosome 176

Yeast 179

Zebrafish 181

Photo Credits 185

Glossary 189

Topical Outline 207

Cumulative Index 213

Educator

An educator is a person who systematically works to improve another's understanding of a topic. The role of educator encompasses both those who teach in classrooms and the more informal educators who, for example, work in zoos, museums, and recreational areas. The work of educators varies depending on the institution that employs them and the age or grade level of the people he or she teaches.

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