There are many potential patterns of interaction that could exist between genetic and environmental factors for a phenotype. Several plausible statistical models of gene-environment interaction have been described. Phenotype expression can either be:
(1) Increased only in the presence of both the susceptibility genotype and the environmental factor;
(2) Increased by the environmental factor alone but not by the genotype alone;
(3) Increased by the genotype alone but not by the environmental factor alone;
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