Much of the history of biochemistry is the history of enzyme research. Biological catalysis was first recognized and described in the late 1700s, in studies on the digestion of meat by secretions of the stomach, and research continued in the 1800s with examinations of the conversion of starch to sugar by saliva and various plant extracts. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur concluded that fermentation of sugar into alcohol by yeast is catalyzed by "ferments." He postulated that these ferments were inseparable from the structure of living yeast cells; this view, called vitalism, prevailed for decades. Then in 1897 Eduard Buchner discovered that yeast extracts could ferment sugar to alcohol, proving that fermentation was promoted by molecules that continued to function when removed from cells. Frederick W. Kühne called these molecules enzymes. As vitalistic notions of life were disproved, the isolation of new enzymes and the investigation of their properties advanced the science of biochemistry.
The isolation and crystallization of urease by James Sumner in 1926 provided a breakthrough in early enzyme studies. Sumner found that urease crystals consisted entirely of protein, and he postulated that all enzymes are proteins. In the absence of other examples, this idea remained controversial for some time. Only in the 1930s was Sumner's conclusion widely accepted, after John Northrop and Moses Kunitz crystallized pepsin, trypsin, and other digestive enzymes and found them also to be proteins. During this period, J. B. S. Haldane wrote a treatise entitled Enzymes. Although the molecular nature of enzymes was not yet fully appreciated, Haldane made the remarkable suggestion that weak bonding interactions between an enzyme and its substrate might be used to catalyze a reaction. This insight lies at the heart of our current understanding of enzymatic catalysis.
Since the latter part of the twentieth century, research on enzymes has been intensive. It has led to the purification of Eduard Buchner, thousands of enzymes, elucidation of the 1860-191 7
structure and chemical mechanism of many of them, and a general understanding of how enzymes work.
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