Ndk

a-Ketoglutarate carbonyl group sets up the molecule for decarboxylation in step ©. Interaction of the carbonyl oxygen with a bound Mn2+ ion increases the electron-withdrawing capacity of the carbonyl group and facilitates the decarboxylation step. The reaction is completed in step © by rearrangement of the enol intermediate to generate a-ketoglu-tarate.

5 Conversion of Succinyl-CoA to Succinate Succinyl-CoA, like acetyl-CoA, has a thioester bond with a strongly negative standard free energy of hydrolysis (AG'° ~ — 36 kJ/mol). In the next step of the citric acid cycle, energy released in the breakage of this bond is used to drive the synthesis of a phosphoanhydride bond in either GTP or ATP, with a net AG'° of only —2.9 kJ/mol. Succinate is formed in the process:

Succinyl-CoA

GTP CoA-SH

GTP CoA-SH

succinyl-CoA synthetase succinyl-CoA synthetase

COO"

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