Cellular Foundations

The unity and diversity of organisms become apparent even at the cellular level. The smallest organisms consist of single cells and are microscopic. Larger, multicellular organisms contain many different types of cells, which vary in size, shape, and specialized function. Despite these obvious differences, all cells of the simplest and most complex organisms share certain fundamental properties, which can be seen at the biochemical level.

Nucleus (eukaryotes) or nucleoid (bacteria)

Contains genetic material-DNA and associated proteins. Nucleus is membrane-bounded.

Plasma membrane

/ Tough, flexible lipid bilayer. . / Selectively permeable to polar substances. Includes membrane proteins that function in transport, in signal reception, I h V"1 A^ and as enzymes.

Cytoplasm

Aqueous cell contents and suspended particles and organelles.

Cytoplasm

Aqueous cell contents and suspended particles and organelles.

centrifuge at 150,000 g

Supernatant: cytosol Concentrated solution of enzymes, RNA, monomeric subunits, metabolites, inorganic ions.

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