Removal of unhybridized probe protein function. We can simply search the genomic databases for particular genes, then determine what other genes are present in the same genomes (Fig. 9-24). When two genes always appear together in a genome, it suggests that the proteins they encode may be functionally related. Such correlations are most useful if the function of at least one of the proteins is known.

Purification of Protein Complexes With the construction of cDNA libraries in which each gene is contiguous with (fused to) an epitope tag, workers can immunoprecipi-tate the protein product of a gene by using the antibody that binds to the epitope (Fig. 9-15b). If the tagged protein is expressed in cells, other proteins that bind to it may also be precipitated with it. Identification of the associated proteins reveals some of the protein-protein interactions of the tagged protein. There are many variations of this process. For example, a crude extract of cells that express a similarly tagged protein is added to a column containing immobilized antibody. The tagged protein binds to the antibody, and proteins that interact with the tagged protein are sometimes also retained

Each fluorescent spot represents a gene expressed in the cells.

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