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(c) Enzyme complementary to transition state

(c) Enzyme complementary to transition state

FIGURE 6-5 An imaginary enzyme (stickase) designed to catalyze breakage of a metal stick. (a) Before the stick is broken, it must first be bent (the transition state). In both stickase examples, magnetic interactions take the place of weak bonding interactions between enzyme and substrate. (b) A stickase with a magnet-lined pocket complementary in structure to the stick (the substrate) stabilizes the substrate. Bending is impeded by the magnetic attraction between stick and stickase. (c) An enzyme with a pocket complementary to the reaction transition state helps to destabilize the stick, contributing to catalysis of the reaction. The binding energy of the magnetic interac-

important principle is that weak binding interactions between the enzyme and the substrate 'provide a substantial driving force for enzymatic catalysis. The groups on the substrate that are involved in these weak interactions can be at some distance from the bonds that are broken or changed. The weak interactions formed only in the transition state are those that make the primary contribution to catalysis.

The requirement for multiple weak interactions to drive catalysis is one reason why enzymes (and some coenzymes) are so large. An enzyme must provide functional groups for ionic, hydrogen-bond, and other interactions, and also must precisely position these groups so that binding energy is optimized in the transition state. Adequate binding is accomplished most readily by positioning a substrate in a cavity (the active site) where it is effectively removed from water. The size of proteins

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