Evolutionary Foundations

Brow, J.R. & Doolittle, W.F. (1997) Archaea and the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61, 456-502. A very thorough discussion of the arguments for placing the Archaea on the phylogenetic branch that led to multicellular organisms.

Darwin, C. (1964) On the Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition (published in 1859), Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

One of the most influential scientific works ever published.

de Duve, C. (1995) The beginnings of life on earth. Am. Sci. 83, 428-437.

One scenario for the succession of chemical steps that led to the first living organism.

de Duve, C. (1996) The birth of complex cells. Sci. Am. 274 (April), 50-57.

Dyer, B.D. & Obar, R.A. (1994) Tracing the History of Eukary-otic Cells: The Enigmatic Smile, Columbia University Press, New York.

Evolution of Catalytic Function. (1987) Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 52.

A collection of almost 100 articles on all aspects of prebiotic and early biological evolution; probably the single best source on molecular evolution.

Fenchel, T. & Finlay, B.J. (1994) The evolution of life without oxygen. Am. Sci. 82, 22-29.

Discussion of the endosymbiotic hypothesis in the light of modern endosymbiotic anaerobic organisms.

Gesteland, R.F. & Atkins, J.F. (eds) (1993) The RNA World, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. A collection of stimulating reviews on a wide range of topics related to the RNA world scenario.

Hall, B.G. (1982) Evolution on a Petri dish: the evolved 0-galac-tosidase system as a model for studying acquisitive evolution in the laboratory. Evolutionary Biol. 15, 85-150.

Knoll, A.H. (1991) End of the Proterozoic eon. Sci. Am. 265 (October), 64-73.

Discussion of the evidence that an increase in atmospheric oxygen led to the development of multicellular organisms, including large animals.

Lazcano, A. & Miller, S.L. (1996) The origin and early evolution of life: prebiotic chemistry, the pre-RNA world, and time. Cell 85, 793-798.

Brief review of developments in studies of the origin of life: primitive atmospheres, submarine vents, autotrophic versus heterotrophic origin, the RNA and pre-RNA worlds, and the time required for life to arise.

Margulis, L. (1996) Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1071-1076.

The arguments for dividing all living creatures into five kingdoms: Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae. (Compare the Woese et al. paper below.)

Margulis, L., Gould, S.J., Schwartz, K.V., & Margulis, A.R.

(1998) Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, 3rd edn, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. Description of all major groups of organisms, beautifully illustrated with electron micrographs and drawings.

Mayr, E. (1997) This Is Biology: The Science of the Living World, Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA.

A history of the development of science, with special emphasis on Darwinian evolution, by an eminent Darwin scholar.

Miller, S.L. (1987) Which organic compounds could have occurred on the prebiotic earth? Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 52, 17-27.

Summary of laboratory experiments on chemical evolution, by the person who did the original Miller-Urey experiment.

Morowitz, H.J. (1992) Beginnings of Cellular Life: Metabolism Recapitulates Biogenesis, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Schopf, J.W. (1992) Major Events in the History of Life, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston.

Smith, J.M. & Szathmäry, E. (1995) The Major Transitions in Evolution, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Woese, C.R., Kandier, O., & Wheelis, M.L. (1990) Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4576-4579. The arguments for dividing all living creatures into three kingdoms. (Compare the Margulis (1996) paper above.)

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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