Further Reading


Belton, P.S. (2000) Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the hydration of proteins and DNA. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57, 993-998.

Denny, M.W. (1993) Air and Water: The Biology and Physics of Life's Media, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

A wonderful investigation of the biological relevance of the properties of water.

Eisenberg, D. & Kauzmann, W. (1969) The Structure and Properties of Water, Oxford University Press, New York.

An advanced, classic treatment of the physical chemistry of water and hydrophobic interactions.

Franks, F. & Matthias, S.F. (eds) (1982) Biophysics of Water, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

A large collection of papers on the structure of pure water and of the cytoplasm.

Gerstein, M. & Levitt, M. (1998) Simulating water and the molecules of life. Sci. Am. 279 (November), 100-105.

A well-illustrated description of the use of computer simulation to study the biologically important association of water with proteins and nucleic acids.

Gronenborn, A. & Clore, M. (1997) Water in and around proteins. The Biochemist 19 (3), 18-21.

A brief discussion of protein-bound water as detected by crystallography and NMR.

Kandori, H. (2000) Role of internal water molecules in bacterio-rhodopsin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1460, 177-191.

Intermediate-level review of the role of an internal chain of water molecules in proton movement through this protein.

Kornblatt, J. & Kornblatt, J. (1997) The role of water in recognition and catalysis by enzymes. The Biochemist 19 (3), 14-17. A short, useful summary of the ways in which bound water influences the structure and activity of proteins.

Kuntz, I.D. & Zipp, A. (1977) Water in biological systems. N. Engl. J. Med. 297, 262-266.

A brief review of the physical state of cytosolic water and its interactions with dissolved biomolecules.

Ladbury, J. (1996) Just add water! The effect of water on the specificity of protein-ligand binding sites and its potential application to drug design. Chem. Biol. 3, 973-980.

Luecke, H. (2000) Atomic resolution structures of bacterio-rhodopsin photocycle intermediates: the role of discrete water molecules in the function of this light-driven ion pump. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1460, 133-156.

Advanced review of a proton pump that employs an internal chain of water molecules.

Nicolls, P. (2000) Introduction: the biology of the water molecule. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57, 987-992.

A short review of the properties of water, introducing several excellent advanced reviews published in the same issue (see especially Pocker and Rand et al., listed below).

Pocker, Y. (2000) Water in enzyme reactions: biophysical aspects of hydration-dehydration processes. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57, 1008-1017.

Review of the role of water in enzyme catalysis, with carbonic anhydrase as the featured example.

Rand, R.P., Parsegian, V.A., & Rau, D.C. (2000) Intracellular osmotic action. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57, 1018-1032.

Review of the roles of water in enzyme catalysis as revealed by studies in water-poor solutes.

Record, M.T., Jr., Courtenay, E.S., Cayley, D.S., & Guttman,

H.J. (1998) Responses of E. coli to osmotic stress: large changes in amounts of cytoplasmic solutes and water. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23, 143-148.

Intermediate-level review of the ways in which a bacterial cell counters changes in the osmolarity of its surroundings.

Stillinger, F.H. (1980) Water revisited. Science 209, 451-457. A short review of the physical structure of water, including the importance of hydrogen bonding and the nature of hydrophobic interactions.

Symons, M.C. (2000) Spectroscopy of aqueous solutions: protein and DNA interactions with water. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57, 999-1007.

Westhof, E. (ed.) (1993) Water and Biological Macromolecules, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

Fourteen chapters, each by a different author, cover (at an advanced level) the structure of water and its interactions with proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids.

Wiggins, P.M. (1990) Role of water in some biological processes. Microbiol. Rev. 54, 432-449.

A review of water in biology, including discussion of the physical structure of liquid water, its interaction with biomolecules, and the state of water in living cells.

Weak Interactions in Aqueous Systems

Fersht, A.R. (1987) The hydrogen bond in molecular recognition. Trends Biochem. Sci. 12, 301-304.

A clear, brief, quantitative discussion of the contribution of hydrogen bonding to molecular recognition and enzyme catalysis.

Frieden, E. (1975) Non-covalent interactions: key to biological flexibility and specificity. J. Chem. Educ. 52, 754-761.

Review of the four kinds of weak interactions that stabilize macromolecules and confer biological specificity, with clear examples.

Jeffrey, G.A. (1997) An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding, Oxford University Press, New York.

A detailed, advanced discussion of the structure and properties of hydrogen bonds, including those in water and biomolecules.

Martin, T.W. & Derewenda, Z.S. (1999) The name is bond—H bond. Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 403-406.

Brief review of the evidence that hydrogen bonds have some covalent character.

Schwabe, J.W.R. (1997) The role of water in protein-DNA interactions. C'urr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 7, 126-134.

An examination of the important role of water in both the specificity and the affinity of protein-DNA interactions.

Tanford, C. (1978) The hydrophobic effect and the organization of living matter. Science 200, 1012-1018.

A review of the chemical and energetic bases for hydrophobic interactions between biomolecules in aqueous solutions.

Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers: Problems for Practice

Segel, I.H. (1976) Biochemical Calculations, 2nd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

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