Glucagon Counters Low Blood Glucose

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Several hours after the intake of dietary carbohydrate, blood glucose levels fall slightly because of the ongoing oxidation of glucose by the brain and other tissues. Lowered blood glucose triggers secretion of glucagon and decreases insulin release (Fig. 23-27).

Glucagon causes an increase in blood glucose concentration in several ways (Table 23-4). Like epinephrine, it stimulates the net breakdown of liver glycogen

Liver State

FIGURE 23-26 The well-fed state: the lipogenic liver. Immediately after a calorie-rich meal, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids enter the liver. Insulin released in response to the high blood glucose concentration stimulates glucose uptake by the tissues. Some glucose is exported to the brain for its energetic needs, and some to fat and muscle tissue. In the liver, excess glucose is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which is used to synthesize fatty acids for export as triacylglycerols in

VLDLs to fat and muscle tissue. The NADPH necessary for lipid synthesis is obtained by oxidation of glucose in the pentose phosphate pathway. Excess amino acids are converted to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, which are also used for lipid synthesis. Dietary fats move via the lymphatic system, as chylomicrons, from the intestine to muscle and fat tissues.

FIGURE 23-26 The well-fed state: the lipogenic liver. Immediately after a calorie-rich meal, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids enter the liver. Insulin released in response to the high blood glucose concentration stimulates glucose uptake by the tissues. Some glucose is exported to the brain for its energetic needs, and some to fat and muscle tissue. In the liver, excess glucose is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which is used to synthesize fatty acids for export as triacylglycerols in

VLDLs to fat and muscle tissue. The NADPH necessary for lipid synthesis is obtained by oxidation of glucose in the pentose phosphate pathway. Excess amino acids are converted to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, which are also used for lipid synthesis. Dietary fats move via the lymphatic system, as chylomicrons, from the intestine to muscle and fat tissues.

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