H H

Phospholipase D

FIGURE 10-15 The specificities of phospholipases. Phospholipases A1 and A2 hydrolyze the ester bonds of intact glycerophospholipids at C-1 and C-2 of glycerol, respectively. Phospholipases C and D each split one of the phosphodiester bonds in the head group. Some phospholipases act on only one type of glycerophospholipid, such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (shown here) or phosphatidylcholine; others are less specific. When one of the fatty acids has been removed by a type A phospholipase, the second fatty acid is cleaved from the molecule by a lysophospholipase (not shown).

Polar head

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