Cross Section Of Four Guinea Pig Adipocytes Showing Huge Fat Droplets That Virtually Fill The Cells. Also Visible Are Several Capillaries In Cross

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Saturated fatty acids a

Mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

FIGURE 10-1 The packing of fatty acids into stable aggregates. The extent of packing depends on the degree of saturation. (a) Two representations of the fully saturated acid stearic acid (stearate at pH 7) in its usual extended conformation. Each line segment of the zigzag represents a single bond between adjacent carbons. (b) The cis double bond (shaded) in oleic acid (oleate) does not permit rotation and introduces a rigid bend in the hydrocarbon tail. All other bonds in the chain are free to rotate. (c) Fully saturated fatty acids in the extended form pack into nearly crystalline arrays, stabilized by many hydrophobic interactions. (d) The presence of one or more cis double bonds interferes with this tight packing and results in less stable aggregates.

in water. The carboxylic acid group is polar (and ionized at neutral pH) and accounts for the slight solubility of short-chain fatty acids in water.

Melting points are also strongly influenced by the length and degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon chain. At room temperature (25 °C), the saturated fatty acids from 12:0 to 24:0 have a waxy consistency, whereas unsaturated fatty acids of these lengths are oily liquids. This difference in melting points is due to different degrees of packing of the fatty acid molecules (Fig. 10-1). In the fully saturated compounds, free rotation around each carbon-carbon bond gives the hydrocarbon chain great flexibility; the most stable conformation is the fully extended form, in which the steric hindrance of neighboring atoms is minimized. These molecules can pack together tightly in nearly crystalline arrays, with atoms all along their lengths in van der Waals contact with the atoms of neighboring molecules. In unsaturated fatty acids, a cis double bond forces a kink in the hydrocarbon chain. Fatty acids with one or several such kinks cannot pack together as tightly as fully saturated fatty acids, and their interactions with each other are therefore weaker. Because it takes less thermal energy to disorder these poorly ordered arrays of unsaturated fatty acids, they have markedly lower melting points than saturated fatty acids of the same chain length (Table 10-1).

In vertebrates, free fatty acids (unesterified fatty acids, with a free carboxylate group) circulate in the blood bound noncovalently to a protein carrier, serum albumin. However, fatty acids are present in blood plasma mostly as carboxylic acid derivatives such as esters or amides. Lacking the charged carboxylate group, these fatty acid derivatives are generally even less soluble in water than are the free fatty acids.

Triacylglycerols Are Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol

The simplest lipids constructed from fatty acids are the triacylglycerols, also referred to as triglycerides, fats, or neutral fats. Triacylglycerols are composed of three fatty acids each in ester linkage with a single glycerol (Fig. 10-2). Those containing the same kind of fatty acid

FIGURE 10-2 Glycerol and a triacylglycerol. The mixed triacylglyc-erol shown here has three different fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone. When glycerol has two different fatty acids at C-1 and C-3, the C-2 is a chiral center (p. 76).

in all three positions are called simple triacylglycerols and are named after the fatty acid they contain. Simple triacylglycerols of 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1, for example, are tristearin, tripalmitin, and triolein, respectively. Most naturally occurring triacylglycerols are mixed; they contain two or more different fatty acids. To name these compounds unambiguously, the name and position of each fatty acid must be specified.

Because the polar hydroxyls of glycerol and the polar carboxylates of the fatty acids are bound in ester linkages, triacylglycerols are nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules, essentially insoluble in water. Lipids have lower specific gravities than water, which explains why mixtures of oil and water (oil-and-vinegar salad dressing, for example) have two phases: oil, with the lower specific gravity, floats on the aqueous phase.

Triacylglycerols Provide Stored Energy and Insulation

In most eukaryotic cells, triacylglycerols form a separate phase of microscopic, oily droplets in the aqueous cytosol, serving as depots of metabolic fuel. In vertebrates, specialized cells called adipocytes, or fat cells, store large amounts of triacylglycerols as fat droplets that nearly fill the cell (Fig. 10-3a). Triacylglycerols are also stored as oils in the seeds of many types of plants, providing energy and biosynthetic precursors during seed germination (Fig. 10-3b). Adipocytes and germinating seeds contain lipases, enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerols, releasing fatty acids for export to sites where they are required as fuel.

There are two significant advantages to using tria-cylglycerols as stored fuels, rather than polysaccharides such as glycogen and starch. First, because the carbon atoms of fatty acids are more reduced than those of sugars, oxidation of triacylglycerols yields more than twice as much energy, gram for gram, as the oxidation of carbohydrates. Second, because triacylglycerols are hy-drophobic and therefore unhydrated, the organism that carries fat as fuel does not have to carry the extra weight of water of hydration that is associated with stored poly-saccharides (2 g per gram of polysaccharide). Humans have fat tissue (composed primarily of adipocytes) under the skin, in the abdominal cavity, and in the mammary glands. Moderately obese people with 15 to 20 kg of triacylglycerols deposited in their adipocytes could meet their energy needs for months by drawing on their fat stores. In contrast, the human body can store less than a day's energy supply in the form of glycogen. Carbohydrates such as glucose and glycogen do offer certain advantages as quick sources of metabolic energy, one of which is their ready solubility in water.

In some animals, triacylglycerols stored under the skin serve not only as energy stores but as insulation against low temperatures. Seals, walruses, penguins, and other warm-blooded polar animals are amply padded with triacylglycerols. In hibernating animals (bears, for

FIGURE 10-3 Fat stores in cells. (a) Cross section of four guinea pig adipocytes, showing huge fat droplets that virtually fill the cells. Also visible are several capillaries in cross section. (b) Cross section of a cotyledon cell from a seed of the plant Arabidopsis. The large dark structures are protein bodies, which are surrounded by stored oils in the light-colored oil bodies.

FIGURE 10-3 Fat stores in cells. (a) Cross section of four guinea pig adipocytes, showing huge fat droplets that virtually fill the cells. Also visible are several capillaries in cross section. (b) Cross section of a cotyledon cell from a seed of the plant Arabidopsis. The large dark structures are protein bodies, which are surrounded by stored oils in the light-colored oil bodies.

example), the huge fat reserves accumulated before hibernation serve the dual purposes of insulation and energy storage (see Box 17-1). The low density of tri-acylglycerols is the basis for another remarkable function of these compounds. In sperm whales, a store of triacylglycerols and waxes allows the animals to match the buoyancy of their bodies to that of their surroundings during deep dives in cold water (Box 10-1).

Many Foods Contain Triacylglycerols

Most natural fats, such as those in vegetable oils, dairy products, and animal fat, are complex mixtures of simple and mixed triacylglycerols. These contain a variety of fatty acids differing in chain length and degree of saturation (Fig. 10-4). Vegetable oils such as corn (maize) and olive oil are composed largely of triacylglycerols with unsaturated fatty acids and thus are liquids at room temperature. They are converted industrially into solid

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