Dik

Condensation

CoA-SH

citrate synthase

CoA-SH

cis-Aconitate citrate synthase

cis-Aconitate

Cis Aconitate

FIGURE 16-7 Reactions of the citric acid cycle. The carbon atoms shaded in pink are those derived from the acetate of acetyl-CoA in the first turn of the cycle; these are not the carbons released as CO2 in the first turn. Note that in succinate and fumarate, the two-carbon group derived from acetate can no longer be specifically denoted; because succinate and fumarate are symmetric molecules, C-1 and C-2 are indistinguishable from C-4 and C-3. The number beside each

FIGURE 16-7 Reactions of the citric acid cycle. The carbon atoms shaded in pink are those derived from the acetate of acetyl-CoA in the first turn of the cycle; these are not the carbons released as CO2 in the first turn. Note that in succinate and fumarate, the two-carbon group derived from acetate can no longer be specifically denoted; because succinate and fumarate are symmetric molecules, C-1 and C-2 are indistinguishable from C-4 and C-3. The number beside each reaction step corresponds to a numbered heading on pages 608-612. The red arrows show where energy is conserved by electron transfer to FAD or NAD+, forming FADH2 or NADH + H + . Steps (J), and (JJ are essentially irreversible in the cell; all other steps are reversible. The product of step (J may be either ATP or GTP, depending on which succinyl-CoA synthetase isozyme is the catalyst.

oxidative reactions and of the coupled synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, mitochondria are the major site of ATP production in the dark, but in daylight chloroplasts produce most of the organism's ATP. In most prokaryotes, the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are in the cytosol, and the plasma membrane plays a role analogous to that of the inner mitochondrial membrane in ATP synthesis (Chapter 19).

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