FIGURE 3-13 Formation of a peptide bond by condensation. The a-

amino group of one amino acid (with R2 group) acts as a nucleophile to displace the hydroxyl group of another amino acid (with R1 group), forming a peptide bond (shaded in yellow). Amino groups are good nucleophiles, but the hydroxyl group is a poor leaving group and is not readily displaced. At physiological pH, the reaction shown does not occur to any appreciable extent.

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