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Proteins, long polymers of amino acids, constitute the largest fraction (besides water) of cells. Some proteins have catalytic activity and function as enzymes; others serve as structural elements, signal receptors, or transporters that carry specific substances into or out of cells. Proteins are perhaps the most versatile of all biomolecules. The nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. They store and transmit genetic information, and some RNA molecules have structural and catalytic roles in supramolecular complexes. The polysaccharides, polymers of simple sugars such as glucose, have two major functions: as energy-yielding fuel stores and as extracellular structural elements with specific binding sites for particular proteins. Shorter polymers of sugars (oligosaccharides) attached to proteins or lipids at the cell surface serve as specific cellular signals. The lipids, greasy or oily hydrocarbon derivatives, serve as structural components of membranes, energy-rich fuel stores, pigments, and intracellular signals. In proteins, nucleotides, polysaccharides, and lipids, the number of monomeric subunits is very large: molecular weights in the range of 5,000 to more than 1 million for proteins, up to several billion for nucleic acids, and in the millions for polysaccharides such as starch. Individual lipid molecules are much smaller (Mr 750 to 1,500) and are not classified as macromolecules. However, large numbers of lipid molecules can associate noncovalently into very large structures. Cellular membranes are built of enormous noncovalent aggregates of lipid and protein molecules.

Proteins and nucleic acids are informational macromolecules: each protein and each nucleic acid has a characteristic information-rich subunit sequence. Some oligosaccharides, with six or more different sug ars connected in branched chains, also carry information; on the outer surface of cells they serve as highly specific points of recognition in many cellular processes (as described in Chapter 7).

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The Sugar Solution

The Sugar Solution

Curb Sugar Cravings Once And For All With These Powerful Techniques. Sugar sensitive people might be low in specific neurochemicals that help us feel calm, centered, confident, and optimistic. Sugar is a drug that temporarily makes the sugar sensitive feel better, but with damaging consequences.

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