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FIGURE 1-27 Energy changes during a chemical reaction. An activation barrier, representing the transition state, must be overcome in the conversion of reactants (A) into products (B), even though the products are more stable than the reactants, as indicated by a large, negative free-energy change (AC). The energy required to overcome the activation barrier is the activation energy (AC*). Enzymes catalyze reactions by lowering the activation barrier. They bind the transitionstate intermediates tightly, and the binding energy of this interaction effectively reduces the activation energy from AC*uncat to AC*cat. (Note that activation energy is not related to free-energy change, AC.)

FIGURE 1-27 Energy changes during a chemical reaction. An activation barrier, representing the transition state, must be overcome in the conversion of reactants (A) into products (B), even though the products are more stable than the reactants, as indicated by a large, negative free-energy change (AC). The energy required to overcome the activation barrier is the activation energy (AC*). Enzymes catalyze reactions by lowering the activation barrier. They bind the transitionstate intermediates tightly, and the binding energy of this interaction effectively reduces the activation energy from AC*uncat to AC*cat. (Note that activation energy is not related to free-energy change, AC.)

Stored nutrients

Ingested foods

Solar photons

Other cellular work

Complex biomolecules

Mechanical work

Osmotic work

Catabolic reaction pathways (exergonic)

Osmotic work

Catabolic reaction pathways (exergonic)

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