Alanine and aspartate are synthesized from pyruvate and oxaloacetate, respectively, by transamination from glutamate. Asparagine is synthesized by amidation of aspartate, with glutamine donating the NH4 . These are nonessential amino acids, and their simple biosynthetic pathways occur in all organisms.

Methionine, threonine, lysine, isoleucine, valine, and leucine are essential amino acids. Their biosynthetic pathways are complex and interconnected (Fig. 22-15).

Aspartate o NH3


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