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FIGURE 3-31 The Blosum62 table. This blocks substitution matrix was created by comparing thousands of short blocks of aligned sequences that were identical in at least 62% of their amino acid residues. The nonidentical residues were assigned scores based on how frequently they were replaced by each of the other amino acids. Each substitution contributes to the score given to a particular alignment. Positive numbers (shaded yellow) add to the score for a particular alignment; negative numbers subtract from the score. Identical residues in sequences being compared (the shaded diagonal from top left to bottom right in the matrix) receive scores based on how often they are replaced, such that amino acids with unique chemical properties (e.g., Cys and Trp) receive higher scores (9 and 11, respectively) than those more easily replaced in conservative substitutions (e.g., Asp (6) and Glu (5)). Many computer programs use Blosum62 to assign scores to new sequence alignments.

FIGURE 3-31 The Blosum62 table. This blocks substitution matrix was created by comparing thousands of short blocks of aligned sequences that were identical in at least 62% of their amino acid residues. The nonidentical residues were assigned scores based on how frequently they were replaced by each of the other amino acids. Each substitution contributes to the score given to a particular alignment. Positive numbers (shaded yellow) add to the score for a particular alignment; negative numbers subtract from the score. Identical residues in sequences being compared (the shaded diagonal from top left to bottom right in the matrix) receive scores based on how often they are replaced, such that amino acids with unique chemical properties (e.g., Cys and Trp) receive higher scores (9 and 11, respectively) than those more easily replaced in conservative substitutions (e.g., Asp (6) and Glu (5)). Many computer programs use Blosum62 to assign scores to new sequence alignments.

Archaebacteria

Eukaryotes

Gram-positive bacterium Gram-negative bacterium

ÎHalobacterium halobium Sulfolobus solfataricus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Homo sapiens

Signature sequence

Bacillus subtilis Escherichia coli

FIGURE 3-32 A signature sequence in the EF-1a/EF-Tu protein family. The signature sequence (boxed) is a 12-amino-acid insertion near the amino terminus of the sequence. Residues that align in all species are shaded yellow. Both archaebacteria and eukaryotes have

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