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phosphoryl group transfers with ATP as donor are called kinases (Greek kinein, "to move"). Hexokinase, for example, "moves" a phosphoryl group from ATP to glucose.

Phosphoryl groups are not the only activators of this type. Thioalcohols (thiols), in which the oxygen atom of an alcohol is replaced with a sulfur atom, are also good leaving groups. Thiols activate carboxylic acids by forming thioesters (thiol esters) with them. We will discuss a number of cases, including the reactions catalyzed by the fatty acyl transferases in lipid synthesis (see Fig. 21-2), in which nucleophilic substitution at the carbonyl carbon of a thioester results in transfer of the acyl group to another moiety.

5. Free radical reactions Once thought to be rare, the homolytic cleavage of covalent bonds to generate free radicals has now been found in a range of biochemical processes. Some examples are the reactions of methyl-malonyl-CoA mutase (see Box 17-2), ribonucleotide reductase (see Fig. 22-41), and DNA photolyase (see Fig. 25-25).

We begin Part II with a discussion of the basic energetic principles that govern all metabolism (Chapter 13). We then consider the major catabolic pathways by which cells obtain energy from the oxidation of various fuels (Chapters 14 through 19). Chapter 19 is the pivotal point of our discussion of metabolism; it concerns chemiosmotic energy coupling, a universal mechanism in which a transmembrane electrochemical potential, produced either by substrate oxidation or by light absorption, drives the synthesis of ATP.

Chapters 20 through 22 describe the major anabolic pathways by which cells use the energy in ATP to produce carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides from simpler precursors. In Chapter 23 we step back from our detailed look at the metabolic pathways—as they occur in all organisms, from Escherichia coli to humans—and consider how they are regulated and integrated in mammals by hormonal mechanisms.

As we undertake our study of intermediary metabolism, a final word. Keep in mind that the myriad reactions described in these pages take place in, and play crucial roles in, living organisms. As you encounter each reaction and each pathway ask, What does this chemical transformation do for the organism? How does this pathway interconnect with the other pathways operating simultaneously in the same cell to produce the energy and products required for cell maintenance and growth? How do the multilayered regulatory mechanisms cooperate to balance metabolic and energy inputs and outputs, achieving the dynamic steady state of life? Studied with this perspective, metabolism provides fascinating and revealing insights into life, with countless applications in medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

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Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

The Atkins Diet is here. Dr Atkins is known for his great low carb diets. Excluding, Dr Atkins carb counter and Dr Atkins New Diet Revolution.

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