O

Nh3 Aspartate

Nh3 Aspartate

Glutamate-aspartate transporter

FIGURE 19-27 Malate-aspartate shuttle. This shuttle for transporting reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial matrix is used in liver, kidney, and heart. © NADH in the cytosol (intermembrane space) passes two reducing equivalents to oxaloacetate, producing malate. @ Malate crosses the inner membrane via the malate-ff-ketoglutarate transporter. © In the matrix, malate passes

Malate-

a-ketoglutarate transporter

malate dehydrogenase

alate

a-Ketoglutarate

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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