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(c) Like all frogs, the crab-eating frog can exchange gases through its permeable skin, allowing it to stay underwater for long periods of time without breathing. How does the high permeability of frog skin affect the frog's cells when it moves from fresh water to seawater?

(d) The crab-eating frog uses two mechanisms to maintain its cells in osmotic balance with its environment. First, it allows the Na+ and CP concentrations in its cells to increase slowly as the ions diffuse down their concentration gradients. Second, like many elasmobranchs (sharks), it retains the waste product urea in its cells. The addition of both NaCl and urea increases the osmolarity of the cytosol to a level nearly equal to that of the surrounding environment.

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