O

1T W-Myristoyl group on 2 amino-terminal Gly

FIGURE 11-14 Lipid-linked membrane proteins. Covalently attached lipids anchor membrane proteins to the lipid bilayer. A palmitoyl group is shown attached by thioester linkage to a Cys residue; an N-myristoyl group is generally attached to an amino-terminal Gly; the farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups attached to carboxyl-terminal Cys residues are isoprenoids of 15 and 20 carbons, respectively. These three lipid-protein assemblies are found only on the inner face of the plasma membrane. Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors are derivatives of phosphatidylinositol in which the inositol bears a short oligosaccharide covalently joined to the carboxyl-terminal residue of a protein through phosphoethanolamine. GPI-linked proteins are always on the extracellular face of the plasma membrane.

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