FIGURE 14-2 The two phases of glycolysis. For each molecule of glucose that passes through the preparatory phase (a), two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are formed; both pass through the payoff phase (b). Pyruvate is the end product of the second phase of glycolysis. For each glucose molecule, two ATP are consumed in the preparatory phase and four ATP are produced in the payoff phase, giving a net yield of two ATP per molecule of glucose converted to pyruvate. The numbered reaction steps are catalyzed by the enzymes listed on the right, and also correspond to the numbered headings in the text discussion. Keep in mind that each phosphoryl group, represented here as has two negative charges (—PO^").

and the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi; which is endergonic:

The sum of Equations 14-2 and 14-3 gives the overall standard free-energy change of glycolysis, AGs°:

AGS° = AG1° + AG2° = -146 kJ/mol + 61.0 kJ/mol = -85 kJ/mol

Under standard conditions and in the cell, glycolysis is an essentially irreversible process, driven to completion by a large net decrease in free energy. At the actual intracellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and Pj (see Box 13-1) and of glucose and pyruvate, the energy released in glycolysis (with pyruvate as the end product) is recovered as ATP with an efficiency of more than 60%.

Energy Remaining in Pyruvate Glycolysis releases only a small fraction of the total available energy of the glucose molecule; the two molecules of pyruvate formed by glycolysis still contain most of the chemical potential energy of glucose, energy that can be extracted by oxidative reactions in the citric acid cycle (Chapter 16) and oxidative phosphorylation (Chapter 19).

Importance of Phosphorylated Intermediates Each of the nine glycolytic intermediates between glucose and pyru-vate is phosphorylated (Fig. 14-2). The phosphoryl groups appear to have three functions.

1. Because the plasma membrane generally lacks transporters for phosphorylated sugars, the phos-phorylated glycolytic intermediates cannot leave the cell. After the initial phosphorylation, no further energy is necessary to retain phosphorylated intermediates in the cell, despite the large difference in their intracellular and extracellular concentrations.

2. Phosphoryl groups are essential components in the enzymatic conservation of metabolic energy. Energy released in the breakage of phosphoanhy-dride bonds (such as those in ATP) is partially conserved in the formation of phosphate esters such as glucose 6-phosphate. High-energy phosphate compounds formed in glycolysis (1,3-bisphos-phoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate) donate phosphoryl groups to ADP to form ATP.

3. Binding energy resulting from the binding of phosphate groups to the active sites of enzymes lowers the activation energy and increases the specificity of the enzymatic reactions (Chapter 6). The phosphate groups of ADP, ATP, and the glycolytic intermediates form complexes with Mg2 + , and the substrate binding sites of many glycolytic enzymes are specific for these Mg2+ complexes. Most glycolytic enzymes require Mg2+ for activity.

Glucose hypoxic or anaerobic conditions glycolysis (10 successive reactions)

hypoxic or anaerobic conditions

2 Pyruvate

Fermentation to ethanol in yeast

2 Pyruvate

Fermentation to ethanol in yeast aerobic conditions

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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