O

Sulfhydryl

Disulfide

Thioester

FIGURE 1-15 Some common functional groups of biomolecules. In this figure and throughout the book, we use R to represent "any substituent." It may be as simple as a hydrogen atom, but typically it is a carbon-containing moiety. When two or more substituents are shown in a molecule, we designate them R1, R2, and so forth.

Ester

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