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pline of "whole cell biochemistry." The complete sequence of an organism's DNA, its genome, is now available for organisms ranging from viruses to bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes (see Table 1-4). Genes are being discovered by the millions, including many that encode proteins with no known function. To describe the entire protein complement encoded by an organism's DNA, researchers have coined the term proteome. As described in Chapter 9, the new disciplines of genomics and proteomics are complementing work carried out on cellular intermediary metabolism and nucleic acid metabolism to provide a new and increasingly complete picture of biochemistry at the level of cells and even organisms.

Amino acid sequence (protein) Gln-Tyr-Pro-Thr-Ile-Trp i-ii-II-II-II-II-1

DNA sequence (gene) CAGTATCCTACGATTTGG

FIGURE 3-28 Correspondence of DNA and amino acid sequences.

Each amino acid is encoded by a specific sequence of three nucleotides in DNA. The genetic code is described in detail in Chapter 27.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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