S

Isoci a-Ketoglutarate nad:

Succinate

Succinyl-CoA

Succinyl-CoA

Succinate

FIGURE 16-13 Products of one turn of the citric acid cycle. At each turn of the cycle, three NADH, one FADH2, one GTP (or ATP), and two CO2 are released in oxidative decarboxylation reactions. Here and in several following figures, all cycle reactions are shown as proceeding in one direction only, but keep in mind that most of the reactions are reversible (see Fig. 16-7).

oxidation of glucose. When both pyruvate molecules are oxidized to 6 CO2 via the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the citric acid cycle, and the electrons are transferred to O2 via oxidative phosphorylation, as many as 32 ATP are obtained per glucose (Table 16-1). In round numbers, this represents the conservation of 32 X 30.5 kJ/mol = 976 kJ/mol, or 34% of the theoretical maximum of about 2,840 kJ/mol available from the complete oxidation of glucose. These calculations employ the standard free-energy changes; when corrected for the actual free energy required to form ATP within cells (see Box 13-1), the calculated efficiency of the process is closer to 65%.

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