Summary 141 Glycolysis

■ Glycolysis is a near-universal pathway by which a glucose molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate, with energy conserved as ATP and NADH.

■ All ten glycolytic enzymes are in the cytosol, and all ten intermediates are phosphorylated compounds of three or six carbons.

■ In the preparatory phase of glycolysis, ATP is invested to convert glucose to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The bond between C-3 and C-4 is then broken to yield two molecules of triose phosphate.

■ In the payoff phase, each of the two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate derived from glucose undergoes oxidation at C-1; the energy of this oxidation reaction is conserved in the formation of one NADH and two ATP per triose phosphate oxidized. The net equation for the overall process is

■ Glycolysis is tightly regulated in coordination with other energy-yielding pathways to assure a steady supply of ATP. Hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase are all subject to allosteric regulation that controls the flow of carbon through the pathway and maintains constant levels of metabolic intermediates.

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