05

High Bpg High Altitudes

FIGURE 5-17 Effect of BPG on the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. The BPG concentration in normal human blood is about 5 mM at sea level and about 8 mM at high altitudes. Note that hemoglobin binds to oxygen quite tightly when BPG is entirely absent, and the binding curve appears to be hyperbolic. In reality, the measured Hill coefficient for O2-binding cooperativity decreases only slightly (from 3 to about 2.5) when BPG is removed from hemoglobin, but the rising part of the sigmoid curve is confined to a very small region close to the origin. At sea level, hemoglobin is nearly saturated with O2 in the lungs, but only 60% saturated in the tissues, so the amount of oxygen released in the tissues is close to 40% of the maximum that can be carried in the blood. At high altitudes, O2 delivery declines by about one-fourth, to 30% of maximum. An increase in BPG concentration, however, decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for O2, so nearly 40% of what can be carried is again delivered to the tissues.

FIGURE 5-17 Effect of BPG on the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. The BPG concentration in normal human blood is about 5 mM at sea level and about 8 mM at high altitudes. Note that hemoglobin binds to oxygen quite tightly when BPG is entirely absent, and the binding curve appears to be hyperbolic. In reality, the measured Hill coefficient for O2-binding cooperativity decreases only slightly (from 3 to about 2.5) when BPG is removed from hemoglobin, but the rising part of the sigmoid curve is confined to a very small region close to the origin. At sea level, hemoglobin is nearly saturated with O2 in the lungs, but only 60% saturated in the tissues, so the amount of oxygen released in the tissues is close to 40% of the maximum that can be carried in the blood. At high altitudes, O2 delivery declines by about one-fourth, to 30% of maximum. An increase in BPG concentration, however, decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for O2, so nearly 40% of what can be carried is again delivered to the tissues.

This cavity is lined with positively charged amino acid residues that interact with the negatively charged groups of BPG. Unlike O2, only one molecule of BPG is bound to each hemoglobin tetramer. BPG lowers hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen by stabilizing the T state. The transition to the R state narrows the binding pocket for BPG, precluding BPG binding. In the absence of BPG, hemoglobin is converted to the R state more easily.

Regulation of oxygen binding to hemoglobin by BPG has an important role in fetal development. Because a fetus must extract oxygen from its mother's blood, fetal hemoglobin must have greater affinity than the maternal hemoglobin for O2. The fetus synthesizes y subunits rather than ft subunits, forming a2y2 hemoglobin. This tetramer has a much lower affinity for BPG than normal adult hemoglobin, and a correspondingly higher affinity for O2. ^ Oxygen-Binding Proteins—Hemoglobin Is Susceptible to Allosteric Regulation

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Responses

  • damian mcdonald
    What does a BPG binding curve look like?
    7 years ago

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