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(b) Secondary active transport

FIGURE 11-35 Two types of active transport. (a) In primary active transport, the energy released by ATP hydrolysis drives solute movement against an electrochemical gradient. (b) In secondary active transport, a gradient of ion X (often Na+) has been established by primary active transport. Movement of X down its electrochemical gradient now provides the energy to drive cotransport of a second solute (S) against its electrochemical gradient.

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