A New Way to Achieve Good Health

Fitness Wellness For You

Fitness Wellness For You

Achieve the Fitness and Wellness for You that you have always wanted by learning the facts so you can take the right steps to maximize your health. Learn How to Achieve Real Fitness and Wellness for a Healthy Body, Mind and Spirit to Improve Your Quality of Life in Today's World. Receive Valuable Information to Discover What Really Matters and What Actually Works in Finding Genuine Wholeness for All Aspects of Your Being.

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The Ayurveda Experience

The Ayurveda Experience is a three-step process to becoming more calm, healthy, and happy with a carefully researched 3-step process described in this eBook guide. You will identify your unique personality type and all of the problems and struggles that your personality type faces, and way to live your life so that you will become more satisfied and happier. Most of your problems in life stem from the fact that people do not realize that you are different from them. Since everyone is unique, everyone needs special treatment for their individual problems. There is no such thing as a one size fits all treatment plan for depression or weight or anything else. The Ayurveda Experience takes ancient Indian religion and medicine into account, and your unique person to come up with the perfect plan for you to become as healthy as you could possibly be. Learn your personality and what makes you tick, and then follow the plan to become the best person that you can be, treated the way that you were intended to be treated!

The Ayurveda Experience Overview


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Herbal Remedies

Herbs have been used for thousands of years in various parts of the world as treatment for medical ailments. Certain herbal remedies have been used to promote and boost fertility in both men and women. Herbs are not regulated by a governmental agency, as the Food and Drug Administration does for prescription and some over-the-counter medication. Consequently, herbs that you may use could be contaminated or not contain the exact ingredients that are listed on the label. Because herbal medicine has not been widely studied and researched, we still do not know all of the potential associated side effects. That said, herbal medicine may still offer benefits to you as you work to maximize your fertility. If you would like to try herbal medicine, you should do so only while under the care of a qualified practitioner, such as a naturopathic physician.

Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurveda is a traditional Hindu system of medicine practised in India and parts of the Far East based on balance in bodily systems and placing emphasis on diet, herbal treatment and yogic breathing. Within the Ayurvedic system, there are complex concepts of the physiology of the body which are believed to help equate health and balance. It is believed that the five elements - ether, wind, water, fire and earth - are the elements that make up life including the three humours and the seven components of the body. Optimal working of the body comes from a balance of the humours and illness from an excess or deficiency of them. Food is used as a means of reducing excess humours and there are 'heat-producing' foods and foods that are 'cooling'. Humoral theory, also known as the hot cold theory, suggests that health is balanced by the effect of hot and cold on the body. These symbolic powers, not actual temperatures, are believed to be present in food, herbs and medicines, and health returns...

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The ABCs of good health body needs, no matter how much you enjoy it or how nutritious the food is. By eating a wide variety of foods each day, you will keep your meals exciting and you will achieve the balance of nutrients that best ensures good health. (See page 11 for more information on the Food Guide Pyramid.)

Medical Systems Crossculturally

While etiological questions do have importance, categorization can also rest on the organizational characteristics of the systems in question. For example, medical systems can be categorized as either accumulating or diffusing according to whether they entail accumulated, formalized teachings or, rather, encourage the fragmentation of medical knowledge (Young, 1983). Practitioners in diffusing systems generally do not communicate with one another their knowledge is often secretly held. Accumulating systems, on the other hand, amass knowledge, generally in written form. Knowledge is shared at conferences and through professional associations and formal training institutions. Biomedicine, Chinese medicine, and Ayurveda are examples of accumulating systems.

Phytochemicals And Functional Food

The use of foods and food components such as phenolic phytochemicals as medicine has had an extraordinarily long history in the East and is still practiced successfully in many countries in Asia with Ayurvedic Medicine in India being one of many examples. However, the origin of the modern concept of 'functional foods as a separate and government regulated category of foods is quite new and was first developed in Japan in the 1980s. Faced with inflationary health care costs, the Japanese government instituted a regulatory system to approve certain foods with documented health benefits in order to improve health. These foods have a special seal and are known as Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) (1). According to a recent report, as of September 2001, 271 food products had FOSHU status in Japan (58).

Regional and Historical Differences within the United States

Culture can act as a modifier of sex differences even within a single country. Buss, Shackleford, Kirkpatrick, & Larsen (2001) studied mating preferences in several regions (e.g., Michigan, Texas) and across a 67-year time span (1939-1996). The authors report significant regional and historical modifiers of sex differences in mate preferences (e.g., men in Texas valued housekeeping, cooking, and chastity more than those in other states mutual attraction and love rose in women's estimation from fifth-to first-ranked criterion over time). Although there were differences across generations and across regions, there were also similarities or consistencies. Sex differences that persisted across time were men's higher ranking of good health, good housekeeping, and good looks, and women's higher ranking of ambition industriousness, good financial prospects, and similar educational background.

Phase I Clinical Trials

Bioavailability means the rate and extent to which the active drug ingredient or therapeutic moiety is absorbed and becomes available at the site of drug action (Chow and Liu, 1999). Experimental units in such Phase I studies are mostly normal volunteers. Subjects recruited for these studies are generally in good health.

Other Trends Affecting Beverages

Consumer trends that affect beverage developments include the healthier lifestyle movement, desire for more natural products with fewer additives, the increase in meals eaten away from home, and the desire for convenience. Natural products and products with fewer additives have become more popular. Improvements in processing have made these products possible while consumer demand has allowed producers to raise prices to cover increased costs. Changes in packaging technology have also had an impact. Aseptic packaging allows less heat processing and resulting flavor loss for shelf-stable juice products. Better oxygen and light barrier materials have improved shelf life and reduced vitamin losses in dairy products. Easy-opening spouts on water and sports drink bottles have become popular. Convenience trends have hurt the sales of powder mix beverages and frozen juice concentrates prepared at home. At the same time, convenience store and vending machine packaged product sales have grown....

Measuring effectiveness

Improvement in quality of life is often as important to patients as reducing mortality, and it is often the main goal of therapies, such as the relief of disabling angina or improvement in exercise tolerance. A quality of life measure can be translated into a scale that ranges from a low of 0-0 (the worst possible health state, usually taken as death) to 1-0 (perfect health). This quality of life measure is multiplied by the length of time a patient spends in the health state to yield a quality adjusted life year (QALY). Thus

Effects of Extended Life Expectancy on General Population

Is it possible to extend the human life span beyond early twenty-first century practical limits and achieve an increase in the duration of healthy life among the older population Answers to these questions may be found in work under way in molecular biology. Based on a current understanding of the process of senescence, extending the human life span would require slowing down the aging rate itself. There is no definitive evidence at this time to indicate that the life span of humans can be modified by any means. However, there is suggestive evidence to indicate that dietary restriction could postpone many of the physiological decrements associated with aging including those associated with both fatal and nonfatal diseases ofaging (Weindruch and Walford). Although it is not practical to expect that human experiments will be conducted on the longevity benefits associated with dietary

CVD profile at different stages of the epidemiologic transition

In the fourth phase (the phase of delayed degenerative disease) a number of changes occur in the society to modify risk behaviors and reduce risk factor levels in the population. Health research augments the knowledge of CVD risk factors. The desire to reduce the adverse impact of CVD on individuals, as well as on the society, steer the community as well as the policymakers to apply this knowledge to disease prevention and health promotion. Community awareness through education, as well as its ability to exercise healthy choices through supportive regulatory measures, empowers its members to adopt healthier lifestyles. Saturated fat and salt consumption declines and leisuretime physical activity and exercise programs are avidly pursued. With concerns about the effects of active and passive smoking, tobacco consumption falls. Simultaneously, medical research makes available new technologies which are very effective in saving lives, modifying the course of disease and reducing the...

Early and late adopters

The pace of epidemiologic transition will vary both between and within countries. Usually lifestyle changes towards risk-prone behaviors occur first in the higher socioeconomic groups and urban communities, for whom the innovations of modernity are more easily accessible and affordable. As these innovations diffuse and become routinely available at prices amenable to mass consumption, the poorer sections and rural communities also join the CVD bandwagon. Soon the awareness of CVD risks, as well as the economic independence to make healthy lifestyle choices in relation to diet and leisuretime exercise (along with the greater ability to access healthcare), moves the early adopters in the affluent and urban strata into a reduced risk zone. The burden of CVD is then largely concentrated in the lower socioeconomic groups and rural populations, who continue to practice high-risk behaviors and display elevated risk factor levels.20 These late adopter groups also will slowly alter their...

Ethical And Legal Issues

Alternative medicine covers a dizzyingly heterogeneous group of medical theories and practices. Alternatives range from the different forms of faith healing, Christian Science, and folk medicine to allegedly scientific systems like homeopathy, chiropractic, and visualization therapy. Also included under the term are acupuncture herbalism iridology the traditional medicines of India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and indigenous peoples holistic medicine naturopathy (treatment using agents or elements found in nature) shamanism yoga radiesthesia (therapy based on detection of natural waves of force emanating from nature) color healing aromatherapy transcendental meditation crystal therapy thalassotherapy (treatment based on sea bathing, sea voyages, etc.) massage therapy midwifery and many others. Certain shared negative elements justify lumping together such diverse medical theories and practices. They include marginal social standing or fringe status exclusion from mainline...

Cognitivebehavioral Model Of Bulimia Nervosa Treatment

Phase 1 focuses on reducing excessive dietary restriction. During this phase, clients monitor their eating pattern and food intake on a daily basis in order to identify the ways in which they typically restrict and to identify any additional triggers for binge eating or purging. Clients are then helped to regularize their eating pattern by developing regimented times for eating and by identifying activities that are incompatible with binge eating or purging to use at times when they feel the urge to engage in either of these behaviors. Clients are also educated about (a) the ineffectiveness of vomiting and laxative use in expelling calories and controlling weight, (b) the effects of dietary restriction on increased binge eating and on metabolism, and (c) healthy body mass index for their body. Clients are encouraged to weigh themselves once a week to test (unfounded) predictions that altering their restrictive eating pattern will result in weight gain. Exposure-based interventions are...

Public Health Service Policy

Hazardous agents, occupational health and personal hygiene including appropriate clothing and practices, and the prohibition of smoking and eating in animal rooms special considerations are also addressed through policies, such as those concerning prolonged physical restraint of animals and multiple surgeries on a single animal. Laboratory-animal husbandry procedures include housing systems (size of cages and provision for social interaction among animals where appropriate) temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting control, and cage and room sanitation schedules and methods of animal identification and of clinical record keeping. Veterinary care practices include preventive-medicine strategies methods for detecting and treating diseases giving investigators advice about appropriate anesthesia, analgesia, and surgical and postoperative care and methods of euthanasia.

Effects of Neurotoxic Compounds on P lividus Ion Dynamics

The employment of these cells is at present innovative, as well as bioethi-cally compatible. In addition, it may solve some controversial points, such as 1. The problem of experiments on animals, which are more expensive, besides causing pain, which is particularly evident in higher organisms. Gametes from sea urchins may be obtained easily by intra-oral 1 1,000 ACh injection this treatment allows gamete spawning without sacrificing the adults, which survive in good health (as demonstrated by further natural spawning in a few weeks M. Franzoni and M. Sgro, preliminary results, pers. comm.).

HandsOn versus Hands Off Management

From a medical point of view, there is contention whether veterinarians ought to treat wildlife diseases. Like all physicians, veterinarians seek good health. Colorado veterinarians treated a lungworm disease in bighorn sheep successfully. By contrast, when an epidemic of pinkeye ravaged the bighorn sheep of Yellowstone Park, authorities refused to let Wyoming veterinarians treat the disease. The welfare of the sheep, they said, required letting the disease take its course disease-resistant sheep would survive and the genetic fitness of the herd would improve. Whether the disease is introduced by humans is a factor. The Chlamydia parasite producing pinkeye was not thought to be introduced some said that the lungworm was introduced from domestic sheep, or at least that the sheep were weakened due to human disruptions, especially of their winter range. Although over half the Yellowstone herd perished by starvation and injury following partial blindness, the herd has recovered, although...

Environmental Factors

The best way to lower the risk of diabetes is to lead a healthy life style by eating a healthy balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and balancing the energy intake with energy expenditure. Indeed, recent evidence would suggest that the adoption of a healthy life style in high-risk subjects can decrease the risk of developing T2D by 60 . There is a close relationship between diabetes and obesity, especially when the latter has central distribution. Apart from obesity, several other nutritional factors affect glucose metabolism and the risk of T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between different types of fats and carbohydrates and insulin resistance and T2D. Diets rich in saturated fats are associated with insulin resistance a multicentre study in a group of healthy individuals showed that a diet high in saturated fat decreased insulin sensitivity compared with a diet high in monounsaturated fat with the same total fat content. Prospective and...

Early Studies of Biomedicine

Biomedicine first came into the anthropological gaze as a product of studies that sought to consider professional medicines of other Great Traditions rather than the folk or ethnomedicines of traditional, small-scale cultures. Indian Ayurvedic (Leslie, 1976), Japanese Kanpo (Lock, 1980 Ohnuki-Tierney, 1984), and Traditional Chinese Medicine (Kleinman, 1980 Kleinman, Kunstadter, Alexander, & Gale, 1975) were objects of study in comparative frameworks that included Biomedicine. In these contexts, Biomedicine began to receive some scrutiny suggestive of its cultural construction, but this was not yet the primary focus of research.

Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Intake Measurements

The first type of error can result in inappropriate investigations or actions being taken to remedy an apparent dietary deficit or excess that does not really exist. Alternatively, no action may be taken when some is needed (e.g., a true deficit is not detected because diet is overestimated). The second type of error tends to undermine the ability to assess relationships between diet and health. For example, if someone who properly belongs in the top quarter of the distribution of saturated fat intake (associated with an increased risk of heart disease) is classified in the bottom quarter because he or she underre-ports his or her true fat intake, the relationship between fat intake and outcome (risk of heart disease) will not be shown. Again, this can lead either to inappropriate recommendations for improving health in the population or, more often, to a failure to take action because the true relationship between diet and health is obscured by measurement error.

California Holistic New Age Healing Center

English-Lueck (1990) conducted an ethnography of the holistic health New Age movement in Paraiso (pseudonym), a California community consisting largely of white upper-middle- and upper-class residents. Despite its relative ethnic homogeneity, Paraiso's residents adhered to a variety of lifestyles. These included millionaires, university students, and members of unconventional congregations, such as the Unitarian Universalist Church, the Unity School of Christianity, and the Church of Religious Science. Paraiso has numerous self-help groups, 36 schools that offer workshops and lectures on alternative medicine, and three schools that offer training in various alternative therapies, including massage, acupuncture, and hypnosis. The local community college, the university extension program, the YMCA, herbal stores, a Taoist sanctuary, and a Yogic Institute ashram also offer workshops on alternative therapies. Of the estimated 790-830 alternative practitioners in the Paraiso area, only 253...

Primary Health Care and EHealth Records Cases

In health care, not every eventuality can be predicted. This bedevils contracts between the public and private sector and can, for example, lead to clinical decision making on the basis of avoiding possible litigation rather than meeting genuine clinical needs. If the ultimate aim is good health care for all, there is room for all forms of primary care. The divisions that affect primary care are rooted in the history and traditions of the medical professions, as are the different types and contexts of care. E-technologies have a huge potential to smooth differences, to stretch resources, and to increase both effectiveness and efficiency. In doing so, they are likely to change the face of primary care.

Structure Function and Nutritional Requirements

The n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are metabolically and functionally distinct and often have important opposing physiological functions. Indeed, the balance of EFA is important for good health and normal development. Historically, human beings evolved on a diet in which the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was about 1 1. In contrast, Western diets have a ratio of

Children as Research Subjects

Children are not responsible for their illnesses. The natural and social lotteries leave some children with diminished opportunities as a result of illness. Good health and social services may be essential to give these children a chance to flourish and develop their potential as self-fulfilled and self-determining persons. In addition, good healthcare helps children by preventing many illnesses and allows for early diagnosis and treatment. Good healthcare, however, is the product of study and research, and the problem is how research should be conducted to help children.

United States Regulations

The major law regulating pesticides, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, provides the EPA with the authority to permit specific pesticide uses when it has been determined that the potential benefits of the uses of the pesticides outweigh their potential risks. Some benefits of pesticides may be directly related to health an example concerns the use of a fungicide that may result in food residues yet may prevent the formation of naturally occurring fungal toxins of potentially greater health risk. Substitution effects are also important, since elimination of the use of a specific pesticide that may leave food residues could lead to an increase in the use of less-effective pesticides, resulting in greater potential for environmental disruption and worker-safety concerns. Another benefit considered by EPA is the pesticide's ability to produce an abundant, available, and affordable food supply by increasing crop yields and reducing production costs and consumer prices.

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

In contrast, a link between increased dairy product consumption and healthier body weight has been suggested in several reports. An inverse association has been reported between ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and the BMI of 4-12-year-old children (Albertson et al., 2003) and between the number of servings of dairy products and body fat in pre-school children (Carruth and Skinner, 2001). Similarly, in a large multi-center, population-based, prospective observational study, the number of dairy servings consumed was inversely related to the ten-year cumulative incidence of obesity and to the insulin resistance syndrome in adults (Pereira et al., 2002). The association between increased dairy product consumption and healthier body weights has been attributed to several milk components, including conjugated linoleic acid (Wang and Jones, 2004), medium-chain triglycerides (St-Onge and Jones, 2003), and particularly calcium (Heaney et al., 2002 Zemel, 2004). Surprisingly, the role...

Integration of Alternative and Complementary Medicine into Palliative Care

Patients and their families may be subject to strong pressures to utilize ethnomedical practices and procedures believed to be efficacious. Recent immigrants may utilize products obtained abroad or from Mexico and Central America. Practices vary widely, including acupuncture for pain, cupping or coining, dietary prohibitions based on hot-cold belief systems, Chinese herbal products, Ayurvedic patent medicines, and full-blown rituals including chanting and the sacrifice of animals. A skilled practitioner creates an open

Biomedicine and Medicalization

In the Western context, and in the United States specifically, biomedicine has assumed the role of the dominant health system (Singer & Baer, 1995). By focusing on the modes of biomedical production, anthropologists can look at the ways in which capitalism has been resisted or transformed by the individual participants (Morgan, 1987). Foster and Anderson (1978) define biomedicine as an ethno-medical system which has both its genesis and its sustenance within Western political, economic, and ideological institution. It is variously called cosmopolitan medicine, capitalist medicine, Western medicine, and urban medicine. Importantly, Foster and Anderson (1978) point out that biomedicine is an ethno-medical system, just like curanderismo in Latin America, Ayurveda in India, and Qi-based systems in China. Biomedically informed health providers blame the victim. Indeed, in capitalist medicine (Navarro, 1986) the system is rarely implicated, while the worker is further burdened. Among

Strategies for Implementing Nutritional Changes to Control Blood Pressure

There are many important aspects of behavior change that are taught to the hypertensive client. Making lifestyle changes gradually so that one adjusts to one change before making another change is important. One should strive for short-term, attainable goals. Getting off track is not uncommon, but identifying what triggered the sidetrack and getting back on track are equally important. One should understand that slips are inevitable it takes time to get used to the changes. In essence, lifestyle change is a long-term process, but it is worthwhile for good health.

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

In the following decades, consumer attitudes changed dramatically food and its quality evolved into a symbol of personality, expressed by the slogan 'you are what you eat'. Health, fitness and diet became the precursors of all current trends up to the turn of the century. Today, especially wellness, well-being and a well-balanced lifestyle have to be added. The fortification with vitamins and minerals results in products that implicate pharmacological benefits, a trend which is increasingly called for by consumers.

Age Specific Prevalence

Age-Specific prevalence data suggest a progressive decrease in lactose absorption with age in African American children studied in the United States. This progressive decrease was seen in a study of 409 African American children 13 months to 12 years of age. The population was stratified by age to have approximately equal representation in each 12-month category. The mean age of the children studied was 6.6 years. The study subjects were drawn from four well child clinic sites and a private pediatrician's office in Baltimore, Maryland. All subjects were in good health as determined by history and a review of recent clinic visits. The children were free of any overt intestinal or allergic disorders and had no recent history of gastroenteritis.

Health Promoting Phytochemicals

There is much interest in the role of various phyto-chemicals to promote good health and to reduce the risk of various cancers. As with many plant foods, legume seeds contain a number of these types of compounds. Prominent in this group are the iso-flavonoids, such as genistein and daidzein, which are found at high levels in soybeans. Epidemio-logical studies have suggested a positive association between the consumption of soy isoflavones and reduced risk of breast and prostate cancer in humans. These and other related isoflavones are found in seeds of most of the commonly grown legumes. In addition, various saponins, catechins, epicatechins, and anthocyanidins have been measured in various legume seeds, and these compounds have also been suggested to have health-promoting qualities. Plant biochemists and human nutritionists are actively working to manipulate the levels of these and other compounds in legumes.

History A Early Concepts Myths

Early references suggest that Hippocrates was aware of the condition now described as hydrocephalus. In 1768, Whytt published Observations on the Dropsy in the Brain,'' in which he cited other writers as far back as the 13th century. Numerous herbal remedies were recommended in those times, though success rates were described as very low. Other treatments included head binding, leeching or bloodletting, injection of strong iodine solution into the ventricles, and exposure to the sun.

Deborah Slalom and E Thomas Dowd

A cognitive-behavioral approach to treatment can address these perceptual and behavioral problems by helping gamblers understand their maladaptive cognitions and behaviors and developing interventions to aid them in creating a more balanced lifestyle. Treatment consists of four stages awareness training, cognitive interventions, behavioral interventions, and relapse prevention. However, the therapist must always be aware that the gambler may lie during treatment and therefore be cautious in dealing with inconsistencies in the client's discourse because alienation may occur. The therapist must walk the fine line between maintaining the therapeutic alliance and being aware of the client's propensity to protect his or her image and habit.

Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

Food provides basic energy requirements, and provides the structural building blocks to maintain metabolic integrity. A normal diet consists of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. In addition, small quantities of vitamins and minerals are also required for good health. Nutritional status may be assessed by measurement of skin fold thickness with callipers (the area overlying the triceps muscle is often used) or by calculation of the body mass index (BMI). BMI is obtained by dividing weight (kg) by the square of the height (m2). Values between 20 and 24 are normal with > 30 indicating obesity and > 40 severe obesity. BMI is also called Quetelet's Test after Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874), a Belgian mathematician who came up with the concept of the 'average' man.

Instrumental Activism

While death is inevitable, its social impact is meliorable. Parsons explored two respects in which this is true (Parsons and Lidz Parsons, Fox, and Lidz). First, medical and public health technologies have reduced premature death and now typically enable members of society to use God-given talents to advance their vocations in good health over long lives. The demographic changes of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and related efficiencies in the use of human talents, thus flowed from an effort to master death. Second, when individuals die, the resulting experiences of social loss can be controlled. Measures ranging from life insurance to retirement planning in business to estate planning in personal affairs to psychotherapy for grief and loss reduce harms ensuing from death (Zelizer, 1983). Similarly, American mourning customs emphasize austerely supporting the bereaved in overcoming grief and guilt, so they are able to return to their routine social obligations without...

Definition of Probiotics

Probiotics have been defined as 'bacterial preparations that impart clinically verified beneficial effects on the health of the host when consumed orally.' According to this definition the safety and efficacy of probiotics must be scientifically demonstrated. However, as different probiotics may interact with the host in different manners, their properties and characteristics should be well defined. It is understood that probiotic strains, independent of genera and species, are unique and that the properties and human health effects of each strain must be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Most probiotics are currently either lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria, but new species and genera are being assessed for future use. The probiotic bacteria in current use have been isolated from the intestinal microflora of healthy human subjects of long-standing good health and thus most of them are also members of the healthy intestinal microflora.

Gender Roles in Economics

Women in the Nandi time-allocation study also spent about 30 hr a week doing housework (cleaning and maintaining the house, carrying water and firewood, cooking, doing laundry, etc.) and married men spent an average of 18.5 hr on income-generating activities. Income-generating activities include such things as cattle trading, buying and selling farm produce, making and selling charcoal, dredging and cleaning sand to sell for making concrete, contract farm labor for larger land holders, and other similar activities. Most men are involved in some form of entrepreneurial activity that earns income. Even traditionally there were some skilled craft specialties, for example, blacksmithing and thatching for men, potting for women, and herbalism and traditional medicine for both sexes.


The recent resurgence of interest in studying our ability to ensure good health and to resist infections and diseases has been prompted in part by our increased understanding of regulatory mechanisms that affect the immune system and in part by our human desire to control and regulate our external and internal environments.

Serving Suggestions

Oysters in the shell also can be cooked in numerous ways baked, steamed, or grilled. Oysters Rockefeller, a hot hors d'oeuvre that is baked and broiled with a spinach topping, is a traditional, elegant favorite. Use shucked oysters in dressings or poultry stuffings. Oyster stew is often made with only heavy cream, oysters, and butter, but a healthier alternative can be created with evaporated milk and added vegetables, such as potatoes, pearl onions, carrots, or mushrooms.

Values Inherent in Health Economics Output versus Input

An alternative does not view health care as a final output, but as one input among many others that contribute to a final outcome termed good health. In this view improvements in health can be the result not only of treatment services, but also prevention programs such as health education, lifestyle change, pollution reduction, and even research and improved training of providers. There is no doubt that the good health that has resulted in the tremendous increase in longevity in the last hundred years is not only the consequence of improved medical care, but also the result of such factors as a safe food and water supply and inoculations. At the present time most poor health and disability results from lifestyles reflecting stress, poor eating habits, lack of exercise, alcohol and drug abuse, tobacco use, and automobile accidents.

Best Practices to Prevent Osteoporosis

In summary, several practices can be adopted to assist in the prevention of osteoporosis. From a nutritional standpoint an emphasis should be made on adequate intakes of calcium, vitamin D and a balanced diet that meets the requirements of other essential bone-related minerals and nutrients (detailed in Table 1). A healthy body weight should be achieved and maintained throughout the life cycle. Age-appropriate physical activity and exercise programs should be promoted to maintain fitness, muscle strength and weight bearing activities. Lifestyle habits that adversely impact bone health, including smoking and excessive alcohol intake, should be avoided. Individuals with risk factors known to increase the risk of low bone mass should discuss these concerns with their physician to identify the need for bone density screening. Appropriate screening will allow for the initiation of medical interventions to maintain or build existing bone mass and reduce the subsequent risk of fragility...

J A Critical Retrospective What Are the Surprises

Necessary to sustain the good health of the patient (consumer). A healthy outcome at the right cost is the ultimate measure employed by most economists. It is doubtful that substantially more resources can be allocated to behavioral care in response to cries for parity without significantly raising costs. The next wave in the economic evolution of health care must be the integration of behavioral health with primary care, the anticipated carve-in, which can give true parity (a seamless system between the physical and the psychological) while at the same time producing medical cost offset. Where all of the fat has been taken out of the behavioral care system, the medical surgical system still suffers an overload of patients who are somatizing. The potential savings in the health system that can be realized by treating the somatizer in an integrated setting are impressive. Most medical cost-offset studies report savings of 5 to 15 . The problem is that the present carve-out arrangement...

What is a reasonable survival strategy

Effectiveness and safety of natural products and supplements. The database provides up-to-date, evidence-based clinical data on natural medicines, herbal medicines, and dietary supplements used in the western world and is compiled by pharmacists and physicians who are part of the Pharmacist's Letter and Prescriber's Letter research and editorial staff.

Food Additives and Herbal Supplements

Of many herbal remedies is safe during pregnancy, this cannot be assumed simply because a product is described as 'natural.' Many plants, trees, fungi, and algae can be poisonous to humans, and many pharmaceuticals have been developed or derived from these sources because of the powerful compounds they contain. Very few randomized, clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of alternative therapies during pregnancy, and women should be warned to use any medicine, including herbal remedies, with care during pregnancy and with the advice of a doctor or pharmacist.

Biochemical and Hematologic Changes

The history of analyzing vitreous humor chemistry dates back more than 40 years and remains subject to controversy.3'13'35-37 The basic principle underlying the test is that the vitreous humor within the eyeball forms a closed environment separate from the rest of the body, although it still may be influenced by ambient tempera-tures.13 Therefore, the postmortem biochemical changes of the contents may assist, if found to be predictable in their alterations, in estimating the time since death. The most investigated is the potassium concentration, although the hypothesis is somewhat reliant on premortem data, which may be limited given the difficulty with which such biochemical information can be obtained from healthy living patients. Studies have suggested that concentrations increase as potassium leeches out of intraocular cells because of a loss of energy-dependent transmembranous transportation, creating an exponential increase. There are also suggestions that interhumoral...

PMS and Dietary Factors

There has been renewed interest in recent years in the therapeutic applications of herbal medicine for a wide range of conditions. The active phytochemicals of the majority of commonly used herbs and their physiological effects are well reported. It is only recently, and mostly in Germany, that clinical studies of efficacy in treatment have been undertaken. There is no doubt from the clinical experience of practitioners that phy-totherapy has much to offer for treatment of hormone imbalance syndromes in women, including PMS, but more research-based evidence is required.

Diets and Food Labelling

In balancing good health, dietary fibre should include products that are wholegrain, with five to eleven servings of starchy foods that are wholemeal or wholegrain. NSPs should be from a mixed source such as wholegrain cereals and vegetables with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day and two portions of high-fibre cereal per day.

Reengineered Business Processes and Reduced Administrative and Clinical Costs

On the medical side, e-medicine, videoconferencing and Web services can decrease the number of nurses' and nurse's aides' visits required in home health care settings, thus effectively reducing labor costs. Virtual visits can be prescheduled on a regular basis, for example, to ensure that the patient suffering from a chronic illness such as lower back pain will follow-up on instructions pertaining to pain medication and other therapeutic procedures (for example, regular stretching exercises and healthy lifestyle behaviors).

Precursors As Risk Factors

In preventive medicine, epidemiological studies have generally served to identify risk factors. Unfortunately, in eating disorders research, population-based studies are scarce, and few have determined the absolute risk, the overall probability of developing the disease in the population at large 14 . In the eating disorders, associations with variables preceding the illness have by and large been determined from clinical studies for this reason, the term ''precursor'' is not only descriptively, but also methodologically more accurate than the term ''risk factor''. One of the drawbacks of using clinical populations is that information from clinical samples, with their generally higher comorbidity than cases drawn from the general population, can complicate interpretations. For example, in the eating disorders, comorbidity might influence aspects of the family's or the individual's functioning, but might have less of an impact on precursors like eating or exercising habits. Moreover,...

Medicine in Ethiopia

Nevertheless, buildings, medical equipment, medical staff, and drugs are essential to good health care and require a high level of investment. To meet this challenge, the Ethiopian government and its international donors must supplement the existing human, infrastructure, and financial resources with modern technology. E-medicine has been identified as a possible solution.

Immune Responsevaccinations Parasite Control

Veterinary health care provider who is familiar with the conditions prevalent in the area. Timing of administration should be coordinated with the desired timing of peak immune response. For maximum response, the sheep must be in good health and nutrition with minimal stress.

Current Commercial Uses of MCT

For millennia, holothurian body wall has also been revered for its prophylactic and curative properties and it is still a component of many herbal medicines. It has become apparent that its reputed medicinal properties may have a scientific basis. For example, its efficacy as a remedy for joint pain is thought to result from the presence of chondroitin sulphate (which may be an important determinant of the mechanical behaviour of MCT see above) and, because of its antiviral properties, holothurian chondroitin sulphate has been patented for HIV therapy (Jiaxin 2003). In addition, the body wall of certain holothurians possesses antibacterial activity (Villasin and Pomory 2000) and has a fatty acid profile that suggests it could be of clinical benefit in promoting wound repair (Fredalina et al. 1999).

Essential Fatty Acids

Two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic and a-linolenic acid. are necessary for good health. Referred to as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they cannot be manufactured by the body, but depend on being provided by nutritional intake, EFAs have beneficial effects when available in moderation. Excesses of the otherwise beneficial fatty acids may, however, exert harmful effects, with high intakes of saturated and hydrogenated fats being linked to an increase in a number of health risks, including degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.

Motivation for Micronutrient Supplement

People choose to use micronutrient supplements for various reasons. Survey data indicate that many individuals decide to take micronutrient supplements based on advice from health professionals, family, and friends. A majority of supplement users regard micronutrient supplements as 'insurance' against general poor health or becoming ill, even though they recognize that scientific evidence for this belief may be lacking. Generally, people report that they use supplements either because they think that it is difficult to consume a balanced diet or because they believe that even consuming a balanced diet cannot supply the quantity of micronutrients they need for optimal good health.

Polystichum lemmonii Shasta fern

Culture and comments Although a Himalayan mountain native, this lovely species has not been reliably persistent in temperate western North American gardens. It may need longer and warmer summers to produce enough sugar for long-term survival. A customized microclimate should encourage good health in Zone 8 or with good husbandry possibly even Zone 7.

Conceptions of Medical Pluralism

Regional medical systems are systems distributed over a relatively large area, such as Ayurveda and Unani medicine in India and Sri Lanka and traditional Chinese medicine. Cosmopolitan medicine refers to the world-wide system commonly referred to as Western medicine, regular medicine, allopathic medicine, scientific medicine, or biomedicine. Complex societies generally contain all three of these systems. In modern industrial or post-industrial societies, biomedicine the dominant system tends to exist in a competitive relationship with other systems such as chiropractic, naturopathy, Christian Science, evangelical faith healing, and various folk medical systems. It often seeks either to annihilate these systems or to restrict their scope of practice. In some instance, biomedicine seeks to absorb or co-opt them, particularly if the latter achieve increasing legitimacy. Chrisman and Kleinman (1983) created a widely used model that delineates three overlapping sectors in health...

Prevention And Intervention Protocols Incorporating Information About Precursors

One of the more sophisticated interactive intervention programmes is described by Stice et al. 64 , who recruited adolescent girls who expressed body image concerns. The intervention consisted either of help with developing a healthy lifestyle that incorporated a balanced diet and regular exercise, or of a ''dissonance'' intervention in which participants were asked to help create a body acceptance programme for younger girls. The dissonance intervention programme and the healthy weight control intervention produced reductions in thin ideal internalization, in negative affect and in bulimic pathology, but did not reduce body dissatisfaction or dieting. Of interest is that the effects of the healthy lifestyle programme were more pronounced and longer lasting.

Skinners Descriptive Behavior Operant Conditioning Theory

Individuals from predators, and keeping early humans out of harm's way during the night. The evolutionary circadian theory helps explain differences in sleep patterns across species where animals that sleep the longest (e.g., opposums and cats) are least threatened by the environment and can easily find food and shelter, whereas animals that sleep very little (e.g., horses and sheep) have diets that require constant foraging for food, and their only defense against predators is vigilance and running away. A common popular theory is that people sleep in order to dream, and assumes that dreaming is an important activity for good health. Recently, W. Webb (1988) proposed a theory of sleep that combines some of the best explanatory features of both the restorative and adaptive nonresponding theories. This new theory considers sleep to be a function of sleep demand (based on the time of wakefulness preceding sleep), cir-cadian tendencies (i.e., bodily rhythms whose cycle corresponds to...

Consumer Driven EHealth Systems

With these trends, we will be seeing some drastic changes in the way health care will be financed in the future. Many consumers are already turning to alternative modalities such as integrative medicine, preventive medicine and therapies, and e-health. One financing suggestion is that the premiums paid for health care go into a savings account until health services are rendered. Other schemes include ensuring that the services meet the requirements and expectations of the consumers and the employers based on needs and priorities. Some employers are even demanding that cost-saving services such as e-prescriptions be instituted as the norm, regardless of employee preference. The U.S. government and government-funded research agencies have been studying the financing of health care costs, legislation on security and privacy of patient records, health care technology assessment issues, challenges to the quality and safety of health care services, and managed care schemes.

Stephen G Zahm and Eva K Gold

Gestalt therapy has roots in psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, Reichian character analysis, and the work of the early phenomenologists. It was developed in the 1940s primarily by Frederick Perls, Laura Perls, and Paul Goodman. Gestalt therapy is humanistic, holistic, and experiential. It is a process-oriented and relational approach based on a theory of healthy functioning. The focus in therapy is on disruption of the natural process of self-regulation. The goal of treatment is the restoration of awareness, which allows for increased choice and flexibility in all aspects of living.

Animal Research Facilities

Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

The comfort and safety of research subjects is a high priority. Because trauma or stress can compromise experiment results, humane care and good science go hand in hand. Animals may be singly or group-housed, but group-housed animals tend to remain healthier and exhibit fewer signs of stress. For nonhuman primates, environmental enrichment is provided in the form of behavioral tasks or computer games, which can double as measures of behavior and performance. Such enrichment helps to prevent stress and boredom, a possible result of confinement and isolation.

Theoretical Bases

Gestalt therapy takes its theory of healthy functioning from a biological concept called organismic self-regulation. This describes the organism's process of taking in from the environment what is needed (food, oxygen) and expelling into the environment that which is not required (waste products, carbon dioxide) in order to maintain balance or homeostasis. Applied to psychological functioning, this theory says that in health, people will naturally go to the environment to get emotional and psychological needs met the need to be listened to, need for support, sex, physical comfort, social contact and will discharge as needed by talking, expressing feelings, crying, touching, doing, and creating. Gestalt therapy theory does not see the individual as separate from the environment but rather considers the individual environment field. In healthy functioning, a person will maintain balance by intake and discharge as required for the satisfaction of emotional and psychological needs by this...

Zoos and Ethical Animal Care

An important aspect of ethical animal care is maintaining good health. Professionally managed zoos have strong veterinary care programs designed to prevent, monitor, and treat illness, disease, and parasites. Zoo veterinarians, pathologists, and nutritionists seek to improve animal health. Nutritionists make sure that each animal gets a healthy (and tasty) diet that considers the animal's species, age, gender, and physical condition (such as pregnancy). As important as these types of services are to animal care, other types of services are important in providing for the animal's psychological health. For example, some zoos provide animals with interesting and stimulating environments.

Virtual Reality Cases in Health Care

The use of VR in medicine is not new various VEs for health care have been developed for surgical procedures, preventive medicine and patient education, medical education and training, visualization of massive medical databases, and architectural design for health care facilities. However, there is a growing recognition that VR can play an important role in clinical psychology as well. VR applications can provide a range of services from diagnostic tests to therapeutic

Zoos and Environmental Enrichment

The term ''environmental enrichment'' refers to the modifications that can be made to animal enclosures that increase the complexity and diversity of an animal's surroundings (see ENRICHMENT FOR ANIMALS). Animals in zoos are expected to live long lives in good health and, especially for endangered species,* to reproduce naturally in captivity. Zoos also strive to educate the public about the natural behavior and adaptations of animal species. The public and zoo professionals alike assess the psychological well-being of zoo animals by the resemblance of their behavior to that of their wild counterparts. In general, environmental enrichment improves psychological welfare by allowing the animal to perform behavior that it is naturally motivated to perform, such as seeking food or a mate, demarcating a territory, building a nest, maintaining its physical condition, escaping conspecif-ics or hiding itself, or interacting with a mate or social partner. In so doing, environmental enrichment...

Introduction importance of biomarkers in demonstrating health benefits

It is becoming generally accepted that several human disorders in the Western world can be linked, at least in part, to a suboptimal diet. Among them we can observe obesity, diabetes, allergy, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hence, the dairy industry has considerable market opportunities to produce and develop new and better foodstuffs that without doubt could be profitable both for the industry and for society. However, the industry can only achieve this goal if new strategies are developed to understand the basic underlying molecular mechanisms accounting for these problems. Interest in the role of nutrition in health, not just to stay alive but also to stay healthy and improve the quality of life, has grown tremendously during the past ten years. Traditionally, maintaining health has been more a question of treating diseases through medicines. In the future, the possibility to diminish the risk of disease by eating the right food is an interesting opportunity for the food...

Regeneration in Echinoderms

Reconstitutive regeneration of arms is particularly frequent in crinoids and ophiuroids which have fragile arms often involved in self-induced or traumatic mutilations. Interestingly, in many cases, the detached body fragments can survive in good health for a long time and undergo phenomena of partial or total regeneration independently of the donor animal (Candia Carnevali et al. 1998). These phenomena, which are also quite common in asteroids, provide evidence of the wide exploitation and implications of regenerative potential in echinoderms. In particular in asteroids, besides the extensive application in common repair mechanisms, arm regeneration offers in fact the most complete example of cloning strategies. As well known, in a few starfish species, individual autotomized arms can regenerate to produce new complete adults. This extreme case clearly shows that in echinoderms regeneration is an indispensable complement of the programme of asexual reproduction which leads to the...

Native American Traditional Medicine

Some Indian patients utilize traditional healers. The Indian Health Service estimates the use of traditional Indian medicine by tribes ranging from 70 to 90 depending on the age group (Carson-Henderson, 2002 Hollow, 1999). Within the Choctaw nation the traditional healers are called Chattah Alikchi or Choctaw Doctor. The alikchi occupies the role of a spiritual leader and is similar to a shaman. The alikchi deal with both spiritual and biological complaints. Among the Ojibway, healers are consulted on diabetes care. Healers provide herbal medicines said to be effective in controlling diabetes. Individuals taking these medicines must abstain from alcohol. Healers are described as gifted because of their

Active Demand Passive Acceptance

Insight into vaccination acceptance and demand requires an understanding of local notions of disease etiology. Very few studies have explored these in relation to interpretations of vaccine efficacy, reflecting perhaps a neglect in medical anthropology for preventive medicine. Many more studies have been done on indigenous notions of therapeutic medicine (Van der Geest, Reynolds, Whyte, & Hardon, 1996). In their study among the Bambara of Mali, Imperato and Traore (1969) point out that the Bambara perceived a vaccination to be an amulet that works if Koranic charms and diviners' incantations have failed. Just as amulets need to be renewed, so vaccinations are seen to be timebound. In Indonesia mothers who do not fully vaccinate their children were found to believe that their children are healthy, and therefore not in need of further vaccinations (Nichter, 1995). In the view of the mothers it was the quantity, and not the quality of the distinct vaccinations that mattered. And,...

Dietary Transitions Lifestyle Factors and Diabetes

An area affected by modernization of diet, ecological changes, and transitions in medical care is the use of traditional herbal medications for diabetes and its complications (Gang, 1995 Winkleman, 1989). This is an area that has not been well studied by medical anthropologists. Grover, Yadav, and Vats (2002) and Dharmananda (1996), respectively, provide primers on Indian and Chinese herbal medicines for diabetes. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of herbal compounds in controlling hyper-glycemia (Chen, Gong, & Zhai, 1994 Gang, 1995).

Gender over the Life Cycle

No special recognition is afforded to defloration or a girl's first menstruation, which is thought to result from sexual activity. There are numerous accounts to support the conclusion that menstruation is thought to be anomalous or akin to illness and should be controlled through the regular use of medicines. When children are desired, other herbal medicines are used to activate fertility. A girl's readiness for child-bearing is signaled by painting with a distinctive motif, mekrajtyk (those with blackened thighs). She may receive lovers in the house at night. The shame felt by menoronyre of the sexual themes in the presence of their elders does not seem to afflict the young women age grade, and this is cited by some males as evidence of their lower level of sociality.

Easing the pain with just a little prick

Are you looking for a little extra pain relief from your endometriosis Acupuncture may be an option. Acupuncture and herbal medicines are frequent treatments for endometriosis and other pelvic disorders. These herbal medicines include plant elements, such as roots, barks, flowers, and fruits, and the formulas prescribed vary from person to person. Common acupuncture points in the treatment of endometriosis are the ears, abdomen, wrists, feet, legs, and back. Needles remain in place for 20 to 45 minutes. Some of the goals of acupuncture and herbal medicines are to break up stagnation of blood by moving blood from one place to another, thus stopping the pain. Each point of needle placement and herb has its own therapeutic importance in the treatment of endometriosis depending on the TCM diagnosis of the individual.

Vaccination Programs their Culture and Context

Negotiating with health problems in specific local settings. They argue that immunization programs regulate populations through a strategic alliance between the immunizing state, multinational pharmaceutical companies, and the medical profession. In the case of hepatitis B vaccination, clinicians from different medical specialities, multinational pharmaceutical companies, and international organizations were trying to persuade the entire population of India that it was in the grip of a potentially fatal health crisis (liver cancer due to the hepatitis B virus) for which the vaccine is the only preventative. A sense of urgency was conveyed by comparing the hepatitis B threat to that of HIV AIDS. The authors question the rationale for the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine given that there were in fact no accurate prevalence figures in India, and that small-scale studies showed moderate levels of endemicity (4-5 ). They also revealed a controversy about the selection of...

Finding the right job for you

Look for a way to stay in your chosen field but decrease the stress. This change may mean that you don't make partner or that you don't make the salary you want, so the 80-hour week can be tough to leave (especially if you're a driven person). But your health may depend on it.

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

One usually does not relate the ingestion of a specific nutrient with concerns about the toxicity of that nutrient. However, intakes of essential dietary chemicals from zero to excessive produce responses, from lethal because of nutrient deficiency to an optimal health response and back to lethal because of intolerably high concentrations. Thus, as the solid line in Figure 1.2 illustrates, an organism cannot tolerate either of the two extremes over an extended period. The figure illustrates that there will be intakes, both low and high, associated with lethality. Also, there will be minimum low and maximum high intakes associated with good health and a valley associated with optimal health. The valley of the curve for optimal health will vary, depending on a number of physical, biochemical, or physiological effects of the nutrient. For example, the intake level of vitamin E for optimal health has a rather wide valley compared with that for intake levels of vitamin D, vitamin A, or...

The Illness Autobiography

Disease on work, family life, identity, and self-image as well as to recount their experiences with impersonal, bureaucratic, medical institutions. While such narratives have been written by people from various walks of life, and deal with a variety of different medical conditions, the stories share many common narrative elements mystery (disease is unexpected or difficult to diagnose), betrayal by one's own body, conflict with medical professionals or medical bureaucracies, the failure of medical science to heal, the need for self-reliance, and, generally, but not always, a return to good health. An early and successful prototype of the new genre was Norman Cousins' Anatomy of an Illness (1979), a poignant account of the author's struggle with a painful collagen disorder which sat atop the New York Times best seller list for more than 40 weeks. In Anatomy, the former editor of the Saturday Review, not only questions the value of high-tech medicine by describing how he substituted...

Hasan Aziz and Zarin Mogal

Usually with an indigenous healer and alternative medicine.39 A supernatural belief combined with family decision is associated with this choice. Relatives, friends and neighbors have a marked influence on the treatment-seeking behavior. In Nigeria,73 86 of the patients are influenced to use alternative medicine, while in Turkey 65 have visited religious figures at onset or during the course of the disease.74 Alternative treatment includes traditional healers, herbal medicine, spiritual healing, faith healing, cautery, aryuveda and homeopathy.27,41,43,45,73 In India, in spite of being well informed of this disorder, alternative treatment methods are often sought.70 The proportion of patients treated by traditional healers and herbal remedies was 70 in Mauritania44 and 11.5 in Pakistan.3 Mystical beliefs about this disorder make many patients and families to visit a community spiritual healer, a holy person or a shrine while receiving allopathic medical care.74 Involvement of multiple...

Bringing Power Relations into the Study of Medical Pluralism

Research on this phenomenon has to recognize that, as Stoner (1986, p. 47) asserts, p luralism can now be examined as a multiplicity of healing techniques, rather than of medical systems. Indeed, in its response to the growing popularity of the holistic health movement, biomedical physicians in the United States have increasingly been incorporating various therapeutic techniques, from homeopathy, herbalism, acupuncture, and bodywork, into their regimen of treatment in an effort to create an integrative medicine. Brodwin (1996) asserts that the study of medical pluralism had reached a theoretical impasse because efforts to categorize plural medical systems often produced rigid functionalist typologies or broke down in a welter of incomparable terms. Medical anthropologists turned to concerns such as the political economy of health, biomedical hegemony, alternative medical systems in Western societies, reproduction, the mindful body, the social dynamics of clinical encounters,...

Hunger and Malnutrition in Lowincome Countries

The first two years of a child's life is the time of rapid growth and the nutrient requirements are therefore great. Good growth is an indicator of good health in children, and stunting and wasting are measures of lack of adequate food in childhood. Stunting often occurs in association with the weaning period. The question Is being short a sign of unhealthiness caused a debate in the 1980s. David Seckler, an economist, proposed a small but healthy hypothesis, namely that a short but not thin child or a stunted but not wasted child is healthy. According to Seckler only those children who show clinical signs of malnutrition are malnourished. If the small but healthy hypothesis were true, the prevalence of malnutrition would be smaller, and this would have political implications. However, the hypothesis was heavily criticized and others showed that the process of stunting is not healthy. Research has shown that child growth deficits and deficiencies of iodine or vitamin A may have...

Biographies of Pharmaceuticals and Contraceptives

Reynolds Whyte (1988) describe the formation of an informal sector for the purchase of pharmaceuticals, one that included smuggled medicines in the Cameroon. They argue that self-medication with products bought in the informal sector can be detrimental to health (not only to individuals but to populations as antibiotic-resistant bacteria multiply) that money is often wasted on useless medication but that, for certain medical problems, the availability of pharmaceuticals sold across the counter is better than nothing. In such instances a form of autonomy can be achieved by patients that would otherwise not be possible. Nichter (1989) shows how in South India over the past two decades use of herbal remedies has rapidly been overtaken by sales of commercial medications. He argues that biomedicine is equated with modernity and progress, and pharmaceuticals have in effect become fetishes imbued with power, as is the case elsewhere. Family members share medications with each other. But...

Embodied Memory in Studies of Age and Terror Violence

Several distinct realms in medical anthropology in which embodied memory plays a central role are in the distressed body (discussed earlier), the lived experience of aging, and the experience of terror and violence. Phenomenological approaches to the aging body address the body both in health and in illness (G. Becker, 1994, 1997 Gadow, 1986 Hennessy, 1989 Rubinstein, 1989, 1990). In old age, embodied knowledge represents the accumulation of a lifetime of self-understanding. Kaufman (1986) characterizes this process among elders in the United States as the ageless self. Luborsky (1995, p. 1457) notes, The experience of present-day impairment is infused with a sense of being seamlessly connected to past, present, and future experiences and identities, both actual and idealized or expected. For those who have been healthy most of their lives, embodied knowledge is of a healthy body, but culture-specific views inform bodily expressions (Lamb, 2000 Mimica, 1996). Rubinstein (1989, 1990)...

Contextualizing Birthing Systems Global and Local Perspectives

In one case, for example, Ganigi, a woman experiencing her tenth pregnancy, confronted complications during labor that challenged local healers. Ganigi initially adhered to the Bariba ideal of delivering alone but called her mother when she delivered the umbilical cord prior to the birth of the baby. Her labor then stopped. This unusual circumstance led the family to call a respected local midwife, known for her spiritual powers. The midwife diagnosed the protrusion as a woman's affliction known as tigpiru, and offered a herbal remedy. When that failed to accelerate labor, a second midwife and the anthropologist were called. The second midwife tried abdominal massage, herbal smelling salts, and a herbal drink served in a gourd, to no avail. Ganigi, in a state of great anxiety that her problems might result from witchcraft, finally allowed the anthropologist to transport her to the nearest maternity clinic, where the nurse diagnosed a prolapsed cord and assisted Ganigi in delivering...

Increasing consumption what is being done

In several programmes, emphasis is placed on the education and involvement of children, because many of the processes linked to the development of chronic disease begin in childhood. Evidence from the Bogalusa Heart Study, tracking early risk of heart disease among American children, suggests that eating habits in childhood have a potential lifelong effect on cholesterol levels and on adult coronary heart disease.32 A study of British schoolchildren found that children who ate fruit more than once per day had better lung function compared with those who did not. The difference was evident even after controlling for possible confounding factors such as social class and passive smoking.33 A further study in Italy found that even low intakes of fruit can reduce wheezing and asthma with effects being most noticeable in children with a history of respiratory problems.34 Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children is viewed as a practical and important way...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

CCL offers training, consulting, workshops, and outdoor experiences for people who want to help the planet and all its inhabitants. Programs are designed for adults and young people for animal protection, environmental and social justice groups, humane educators, activists, business and civic groups, and students of all ages. CCL workshops are intended to provide tools and information to fully live a vision of a healthy life for people, the planet, and other beings. CCL has inaugurated a humane education certification program as an off-campus correspondence program, with one to two weeks of on-site training annually. The workshops are recommended for those who would like to apply for certification. Sowing Seeds A Humane Education Workbook, designed for educators, provides specific suggestions for presentations, as well as guidelines for communicating and stimulating critical thinking. JAR, a nonmembership organization, promotes animal rights and the alleviation of animal suffering....

Colonialism Early Post Colonialism and Health

In Southeast Asia, Indonesia provides a similar set of circumstances and health conditions after Independence from Dutch colonial rule. Gardiner and Oey (1987) document a disease profile for Java before independence dominated by infectious and communicable diseases, notably cholera, smallpox, malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and tuberculosis. The Handbook of the Netherlands East-Indies, 1924 warns Dutch colonialists of the persistence of the contagious abdominal troubles enteric fever, amebic and bacillary dysentery, cholera, malaria as well as hookworm disease, yaws, beri-beri, leprosy, plague, and smallpox that affect health in the Dutch colonies. In 1966, nearly two decades after Indonesian Independence, President Suharto gave birth to the Seven Health Efforts program instituted in order to cope with the return of epidemics, especially malaria and the poxes. Indonesian post-colonial development projects meant to eradicate epidemic infectious diseases targeted the improvement of...

Hinduism bioethics in

Hinduism is a religious system that has grown and developed from the Vedic religion identified with Aryans who invaded the Indian subcontinent over a period of centuries in the second millennium b.c.e. It is rooted in an oral tradition that gave rise to four groups of sacred texts during a period that is difficult to pinpoint more precisely than 1500 to 900 b.c.e. Based on this informal collection of traditions, beliefs, and practices and the corpus of formal written treatises, which together provided a context for development of the medical system known as Ayurveda, Hinduism encompasses a range of values and codes of conduct highly relevant to a study of Indian bioethics. Hinduism as we might recognize it today took shape in the Gupta Period (c. 300-500 c.e.), often regarded as the classical age of Hindu India. This entry will identify and briefly discuss basic concepts, which clarify the setting for analysis of bioethics in Hindu India, before focusing on medical ethics in Ayurveda....

Therapeutic Value Of Cultured Milk

In 1907 Metchnikoff wrote the book Prolongation of Life and claimed that drinking sour milk regularly gave people in southeast Europe long life and good health, because premature old age was a result of absorption of toxins produced by bacteria in the large intestines. Large volumes of sour milk with live cultures changed the balance of microflora in the intestines so that toxic compounds were not produced and people lived longer. At a minimum, drinking live cultures of L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus is not harmful. For people taking antibiotics after major surgery, which tends to sterilize the intestines, these live organisms might very well be beneficial. People with gastrointestinal problems may find sour milk helpful in suppressing diarrhea. This is still a controversial area.

Holistic New Age and Folk Medicine

During the last few decades of the twentieth century, the holistic healing movement led a surge of popular interest in therapies based on an explicitly religious, or quasi-religious, interpretation of the healing process. The precise meaning of the term holistic medicine varies among healing systems. Among its meanings are emphasis upon natural therapies, patient education and responsibility, prevention, and treating patients as whole people. Also common to holistic healing is the basic assumption that, as one handbook put it, every human being is a unique, wholistic, interdependent relationship of body, mind, emotions, and spirit. The term spirit, alongside body, mind, and emotions, carries holistic healing beyond psychosomatic medical models it also represents commitment to a belief in the interpenetration of physical and nonphysical spheres of causality. Even holistic healing's exhortations concerning reliance upon the body's own regenerative and reparative processes are typically...

Case Studies of Medical Pluralism India

(2) indigenous medical systems, which include practitioners who have obtained degrees from Ayurvedic, Unani, and Siddha medical colleges (3) homeopathy, whose physicians have completed correspondence courses (4) religious scholars or learned priests with unusual healing abilities and (5) local folk healers, bone-setters, and midwives. In contrast to some 150,000 biomedical physicians, there were an estimated 400,000 practitioners of Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha in the early 1970s. Ayurveda is based upon Sanskrit texts, Unani on Galenic and Islamic medicine, and Siddha on South Indian humoralism. In addition to 95 biomedical schools, India has 92 Ayurvedic colleges, 15 Yunani colleges, and a college of Siddha medicine. Although homeopathy entered India as a European import, the opposition to it by the British-dominated biomedical profession spared it association with colonialism. Homeopathic practices have become a standard component of Ayurveda. Although the Indian state continued to...

Health Disease and Morality

Ayurveda, despite its emphasis on the humoral basis of health and disease, also recognized external (agantu) causes that provided a better account than endogenous (nija) causes that is, humoral imbalance to explain some medical conditions. Karma referred to the impact of misdeeds in a previous life. Irreverent, unethical behavior and other violations of codes of conduct (prajna-aparadha) in one's current life were not limited to effects on that individual they could also affect offspring (Caraka, iv. 8. 21, 30). Serious transgressions of the king might also produce epidemic disease and disasters (janapadoddvamsana) in his kingdom (Caraka, iii. 3). Moral conduct, affecting individuals, distinct from epidemics affecting populations, operated through the all-embracing doctrine of karma in some instances, karma explained health or disease if the humoral theory or demonic possession could not, and in other instances, it provided a complementary explanation. Illnesses might be caused by the...

Courtship and Marriage

Marriage ceremonies between dara (never married) are very elaborate, something unique among Orang Asli. Ceremonies begin on a Friday night of a full moon. Gifts (minang) pass from the groom's family to the bride and her family. The minang includes a token amount of money, a small woven basket of cigarettes, and betel nut quid makings which go to the bride's family clothes and other items that the bride will need to beautify herself for the following days' ceremonies go to the bride. On the following morning, both the bride and groom's teeth are filed, indicating their entry into adulthood. They are then separately sequestered until the night, when an elaborate ceremony takes place to ritually cool the couple, thus ensuring good luck and good health. Celebrants dance and sing through the night. On Sunday morning the groom and his kin, using martial arts, symbolically break through a line of bride's male kin protectors. The groom then captures his bride. The couple are then greeted by...

Biology and Nature Constructing Biomedicines Ultimate Realities

Central to the (re) conceptualizations of human biology in various societies are certain root metaphors for traditional U.S. medicine, the body is like a machine in Traditional Chinese medicine, it is like a plant in Indian Ayurveda, the body is seen as an element in an ecological system. These analogies greatly affect medical nosologies (system or study of the classification of diseases), diagnostics, and therapeutics. A cross-cultural vantage point makes it clear that biology is relative, not constant and universal in its normal or pathological states as Biomedicine asserts. Yet the thrust of Biomedicine remains the reduction of pathology to elementary, universal biological abnormalities that are believed to reside in Nature and there can be discovered (Gordon, 1988 Keller, 1992 Mishler, 1981).

Very Low Calorie Diets and Meal Planning

His identity was highly connected to being obese. For example, he delivered pizzas and took great pride in consuming multiple pizzas if they could not be delivered. His friends were amazed at his appetite and ability to consume very large quantities of food. He was enrolled in college, but was on the verge of flunking out of school at the time of the referral. He reported eating binges, but they were atypical in that they were not secretive and he did not experience guilt or negative feelings following the binges. He had never seriously attempted dieting to lose weight and he was very sedentary, but in generally good health other than his rather significant obesity. His family was intact, with a mother, father, and older brother, who had experienced problems related to substance abuse.

The Future of Medicine

The idea of preventive medicine is not new, but until the completion of the Human Genome Project medicine did not have a way of accomplishing it for common medical problems. For example, for years almost every baby born in the United States has had its urine or blood screened early in life for phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare genetic disease in which affected individuals cannot metabolize the amino acid phenyalanine, a common amino acid in our food. Untreated, PKU patients develop severe mental and psy-chomotor retardation. However, if a child is identified early in life to have the PKU mutation, the disease can be prevented by placing the child on a special diet that lacks phenylalanine.

Health benefits of whole foods over isolated components

Few, of the hundreds of components present in a diet containing a variety of fruits and vegetables.27 Compounds isolated from plant foods, or synthetic copies of compounds that can be found in these foods, are promoted and used for their putative medicinal or health promoting properties. The literature that accompanies their sale can be very convincing to those who want to stay healthy. For those with a diagnosed condition, these compounds can appear a more natural and safer alternative to drug therapy and certainly a much easier option than trying to change the dietary habits of a lifetime.

Binge Eating Disorder

Psychotherapy research involving binge eating disorder has been largely based on treatments for bulimia nervosa and, because substantial numbers of binge eating disorder patients are overweight or obese, on psychotherapy treatment research for obesity. Because obesity is a common comorbid condition, researchers have been concerned with how to relate treatments designed to reduce binge eating behavior with those designed to enhance weight loss. Based on available studies, most experts agree that initial therapeutic aims should focus on reducing binge eating episodes. Once binge eating has been controlled weight loss programs may be more effective. Nevertheless, when results are examined at 5 years after treatment the enduring impact of weight loss programs is not very impressive. For obese patients, non-diet approaches that stress self-acceptance, improving body image, and improving health and fitness through exercise and better nutrition, are being developed as alternatives to...

Early Detection Of Eating Disorders

The early detection of AN is hampered first by factors inherent in the disease process, especially the denial of illness. AN patients typically identify with the weight loss and assert that they are well and that all is normal 68 . This denial of illness not infrequently extends to family members. Second, food restriction and the high value placed on exercise for a healthy body fit cultural norms and may not be recognized as prodromes to AN. BN patients also tend to be secretive about their abnormal eating pattern. Moreover, the demarcation between shape concerns of a dieting

The Impact of Science on Life Expectancy

These and other aging-related genes that could be manipulated by methods being developed in molecular biology. There is reason to believe that breakthroughs in this area are forthcoming and that by controlling genes that influence diseases of aging, it may become possible to allow more people to survive longer and healthier than is currently the case. Just how much longer and healthier people can survive through manipulating the genome is the subject of intense debate. It may also become possible to achieve increases in longevity by introducing pharmaceuticals that alter the environment in which the genome operates. One example is the effort to introduce into the human diet natural and artificial antioxidants (i.e., substances that reduce the amount of damage caused by the presence of free radicals, products of normal metabolism implicated in the aging process). The result may be a general deceleration of the entire aging process.

Historical Context of Interest in Drugs

Biomedicine and its power to discover palliatives and topical remedies have exercised strong influence on the place of drug use in Western life. By the time anthropology was emerging as a discipline, the European pharma-copia included numerous remedies derived from plants, many of which were not native to Europe. Opium and its tinctures had many uses in 19th-century English medical practice, and cocaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble transformation of a single alkaloid extracted from coca leaves, appeared in scores of patent medicines marketed in Europe and the United States (Morgan, 1981 Musto, 1987). Avant-garde artistic enthusiasm for some drugs arose in 19th-century Europe and England, exemplified by Coleridge's enthusiasm for laudanum (a tincture of opium) and Baudlaire's Club Les Hachichins (a group of French literati who took hashish, or concentrated Cannabis resin, as a source of inspiration).