The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. Read more here...

The Complete Grape Growing System Summary


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Author: Danie Wium
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My The Complete Grape Growing System Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this ebook, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the excitement was about.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.


Grapes (vitis vinifera and vitis lubruscana), especially the dark red varieties, contain generous amounts of flavonoids and relatively high levels also of hydrox-ycinnamates that all exert potent anti-oxidant activities in various assay systems. The antioxidant activity of wines have received much attention owing to their possible physiological benefits. However, several of the phenolics present in fresh grapes and grape juice are also potent antioxidants in various in vitro assays, including several containing biologically relevant lipid substrates, notably human LDL. In fresh grapes and grape juices the polyphenolic compounds are primarily present as glucosides, while the phenolics in wines are principally aglycones. Glycosylation is generally considered to dampen the antioxidant potency of polyphenolics, but the available data on this are conflicting, as the impact of gly-cosylation and in turn antioxidant solubility and partitioning are very system dependent. Depending on the...


Fermentation problems are often vineyard-specific. Nitrogen deficiency in apparently healthy grapes can be severe. Drought, grapevine nutrient deficiencies, high incidences of fungal degradation, and level of fruit maturity all influence must nitrogen and vitamins. Cultivar, rootstock, crop load, and growing season may also influence juice or must nitrogen. Some varieties, such as Chardonnay, have a greater tendency toward deficiency. Higher total nitrogen may also be associated with certain rootstocks. For example, grapes grown on St. George are higher in total nitrogen than those on AXR1. As seen in Fig. 2, the concentration of a-amino nitrogen in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes changes as a function of maturity and crop load. Henick-Kling et al. (2) compared the concentrations of the two important sources of assimilable N (FAN and NH4+ ) among six cultivars at maturity over two seasons (Table 1). This study illustrated large variations from one season to the next in both free ammonia and...

Nutrient Composition

Some varieties of grapes are good to excellent sources of vitamin C, whereas others are not. Moderate consumption of red wine, which contains the phytochem-ical resveratrol, along with a heart-healthy diet may contribute to the prevention of heart disease. (See the Appendix, page 436, for the nutrient content of raisins.)

Incidence Of Abrasion Bruising Compression And Vibration Damage

Bruising can cause the browning of tissues of such fruits as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, cherries, grapes, and bananas, resulting from enzymatic oxidation of cellular contents.24 25 Bruise damage results when the items hit each other or come in contact with hard surfaces of machinery, containers, or handling equipment. Conditions of impact that will promote bruising depend on each fruit's tissue structure.26 Produce with dense tissue and with less air-filled interstitial space are susceptible to deep bruises that may not be detectable on the surface and often develop into cone-shaped and radial fractures as described among peaches27 and potatoes.13 On the other hand, produce with a high volume of air-filled interstitial spaces appear to distort in an elastic manner at the contact surface until cell breakage occurs and is typically found in apples.28 29 Usually the elastic region is continuously re-established further into the fruit until all the impact energy is either...

Quality criteria for fresh produce appearance texture flavour and aroma

Many fruits and vegetables undergo colour changes as part of the ripening process. Unripe fruit is usually green (the so-called 'ground colour') and in many types of fruit, the green colour becomes lighter during ripening and maturation owing to breakdown of chlorophyll, for example in apples, grapes, papaya. This may reveal underlying yellow or red pigments (Tucker, 1993). Peel and pulp often undergo different colour changes, as in apples and bananas. In some cases, fruit colour is a strong indicator of eating quality and shelf-life, for example, tomatoes and bananas, whereas in others it is not. Many pre-harvest factors can affect fruit colour independently of other ripeness characteristics. So, for example, the peel of oranges grown in tropical regions may remain green despite having attained acceptable eating quality. Yellowing of green vegetables such as broccoli and spinach will reduce their quality as may browning of cut tissues, for example butt-ends of Brussels sprouts. Other...

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacterial Biological Control Images

Bacillus subtilis is known to produce diverse antifungal peptides represented by inturins. A series of fungicidal metabolites, named rhizocticines, were identified from B. subtilis ATCC6633 (Figure 2) (Fredenhagen et al. 1995). These peptides showed control efficacy against B. cinerea on apples and vines in the greenhouse. The proteolytic digestion test of the compound revealed that L-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-(Z)-pentenoic acid was the actual structure active against B. cinerea. The antifungal activity was proven to be stereo specific, since the corresponding 3-(E) compound did not show any antifungal activity. The mixture of rhizocticines A, B, and D also showed control efficacy against gray molds on grapes in the field.

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants to protect themselves against biological and environmental stresses such as pathogen attack or high energy radiation exposure (1,2). These compounds involved in the plant defense response are one of the most abundant classes of phytochemicals and are also invariably important components of our diets (3,4,5). Commonly consumed fruits such as apples, bananas, grapes, and several types of berries and their beverages are examples of plant foods as sufficiently rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. Similar phytochemicals in our diet are also obtained from diverse commonly consumed vegetables such as tomato, cabbage, and onions to grains such as cereals and millets as well as legumes such as soybean, common beans, mung beans, fava beans, and peas, depending on the specific regions of the world (4,5,6). In addition many different types of herbs and spices containing phenolic

Microbial Contaminants

Consumer in recent years have expressed considerable concern over the safety of the food supply. Concern has been aimed at the presence of hormones and drugs in meats, preservatives found in food, pesticides, microbial contaminants, and food additives. Reports last year of cyanide in grapes and Alar in apples have fueled the level of concern. This issue of the public's concern over the quality of food was addressed at a conference (the International Conference on Issues in Food Safety and Toxicology) held in the spring of 1990 at Michigan State University (MSU) East Lansing, Mich. The conference was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and MSU's Center for Environmental Toxicology. From various presentations it became apparent that the consumers' perceptions of risks from chemical agents in food differs drastically from the experts' opinions. The experts rank the risk from chemicals below microbial risk or nutritional considerations. The general public perceives the...

Commercial Applications

Skins have been extensively utilized. Grapes are the largest single fruit crop grown in the world, and, therefore, the major source of phenolic compounds among the different fruits and vegetables. Grape pigments have significant commercial value approximately 10,000 tons of grape anthocyanins are utilized annually. Since anthocyanins are natural colorants, many processors prefer anthocyanins to synthetic red dyes. However, anthocyanins are less stable in many foods because light and pH affect them. They are also readily bleached by sulfur dioxide, which is often used in beverage and food processing as a preservative. This instability can be counteracted by reacting anthocyanins with carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, to stabilize them (9). Also, it is possible to use acylated anthocyanins, which are more stable to light than the simple glycosides.

Utilization Of Fruit And Vegetable Processing Wastes Via Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation can also be used for composting of fruit and vegetable processing wastes such as apple waste (59) and tomato pomace (60). Composted apple pomace and other fruit and vegetable processing wastes can be used in nursery potting mixes and as field soil amendments (61). Composted grape pomace was used as an organic fertilizer in vineyards for growing grapes (62).

Background And Historical Significance

The name staphylococcus originated from the Greek root staphyle, referring to grapes, and in 1882 was used for taxonomic designation of pathogenic, cluster-forming cocci. The association between staphylococci and foodborne illness was suggested in 1884, while in 1914, Barber reported illness symptoms in individuals after the ingestion of milk containing Staphylococcus aureus. The role of toxins in staphylococcal food poisoning (intoxication) was demonstrated in 1930, when ingestion of S. aureus cell-free filtrates led to development of clinical symptoms (Jay, 2000 Lund et al., 2000). It is estimated that S. aureus is responsible for 185,000 cases of foodborne disease annually in the United States, with a case fatality rate of 0.0002 (Mead et al., 1999).

Inactivation of spoilage microorganisms

Some yeasts associated with spoilage of beer, wine, pickles and other low pH or fermented foods and beverages are Brettanomyces spp. (anamorph Dekkera), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, which spoils mayonnaise, salad dressing and wines (Jay, 2000). Spoilage molds are diverse in morphology and include Botrytis cinerea, responsible for gray mold rot29 of grapes, tomatoes, apples and stone fruits, as well as, Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium herbarum, which produces 'black spot' on mutton, beef and 'restricted' rot on stone fruits (Jay, 2000).

Application of plant phytoalexins

To demonstrate this possibility several grape bunches were immersed for 5 s in a water solution of resveratrol (1.6 x 10-4 M). A similar number of bunches were immersed in bidistilled water for the same time period. After this short treatment, the fruits were kept in open air at room temperature. The results obtained with white grapes (Aledo variety) are shown in Fig. 12.11.165,166 The picture was obtained ten days after treatment and significant differences can be noticed in the two set of bunches while the resveratrol-treated bunches still maintained a physical aspect with no sign of losses or deterioration, the untreated ones were not only dehydrated but clearly infected and had deteriorated with local development of fungi. This result opened the way to subsequent investigations of other fruits. In fact, the phytopathogenic fungus B. cinerea can infect a huge range of host plants with no apparent specialisation (berry fruits, horticultural vegetables, monocotyledons, bulbs,...

Collaboration with governments

During February, I heard on the grapevine that Soames was hoping to meet Anaphylaxis Campaign representatives so we could share our information with him, and this meeting, set up by my MP, Cranley Onslow, took place on 24 March in his office in Whitehall Place. We had been reliably informed that

Contents In Fruits And Vegetables And Its Products

Among phenolic acids found in common fruits, chloro-genic acid is the major compound found in apples (62-385 ppm), pears (64-280 ppm), cherries (11-140 ppm), plums (15-142 ppm), peaches (43-282 ppm), and apricot (37-123 ppm). This is followed by neochlorogenic acid in cherries (73-628 ppm), plums (88-771 ppm), peaches (33-142 ppm), and apricots (26-132 ppm) and 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid in cherries (40-450 ppm), and plums (4-40 ppm). Among berries, blueberries are reported to contain the largest quantity of caffeoylquinic acids (1860-2080 ppm), followed by blackberries (45-53 ppm), and black currents (45-52 ppm) (5). The major phenolic acids in grapes are caffeoyltartaric acid, ranging from 46 to 397 ppm in white grapes (21) and from 50 to 435 ppm in the red cultivars (22). Among the various flavan-3-ols and their derivatives found in fruits and vegetables, apple skins mainly contain epicatechin (30-1010 ppm), procyanidins (30-910 ppm), phloretin glycosides (60-380 ppm), and quercetin...

Functional Phytochemicals from Cranberries Their Mechanism of Action and Strategies to Improve Functionality

Phenolic compounds or phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plant origin which constitute one of the most abundant groups of natural compounds and form an important component of both human and animal diets (1,2,3). These phenolic metabolites function to protect the plant against biological and environmental stresses and are therefore synthesized in response to pathogenic attack, such as fungal or bacterial infection, or high energy radiation exposure, such as prolonged UV exposure (4,5). Because of their important biological functions, phenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants and therefore find their place in almost all food groups. Common fruits such as apples, cranberries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries, and fruit beverages like red wine and apple and orange juices, are rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. In addition to fruits, vegetables such as cabbage and onion, and food grains such as sorghum, millet, barley, peas, and other legumes (6) are...

Methods of food preservation

Fermentation is a gradual chemical change caused by the enzymes of some bacteria, moulds, and yeasts. Fermented beverages were ubiquitous in the earliest civilisations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Not only did wine facilitate conviviality, it was usually more potable than the available water. Winemaking also served as a means of storing nutrients from grapes almost indefinitely. Similarly, Asian steppe dwellers turned mare's milk into koumiss, a fermented beverage that keeps much longer than unprocessed milk. Many cheeses with a long shelf life are produced by lactic-acid fermentation. One means of pickling, a very early form of food preservation, is to treat foods with vinegar, a liquid obtained by further fermenting alcoholic beverages.

Application Of Sulfites In The Food Industry

Sulfites are often used in wine brewing to prevent undesirable bacterial fermentation. Table grapes and fruits intended for jam and juice are also often preserved by sulfites to prevent decay (11,12). Sulfites can effectively prevent or minimize nonenzymatic browning by forming stable hydroxysulfonates with car-bonyls and reducing sugars as mentioned in the previous section. In this respect, sulfites are widely used in wine making and in dehydrated fruits and vegetables to prevent the discoloration of the finished products (3,7,8). Sulfites can also inhibit some oxidative enzymes such as polyphen-oloxidase, ascorbate oxidase, lipogenase, and peroxidase (6) and therefore can retard the enzymatic browning resulting from polyphenoloxidase. In addition, sulfites can form stable hydroxysulfonates with browning intermediates such as quinones, and prevent further reaction to form browning pigment (6). Thus, sulfites are commonly used in fresh vegetables for salad bars (this application has...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

The Green School Program of the Center for Environmental Education is a four-part high-school supplementary curricular program that uses existing environmental education materials Peer Partners in Environmental Education (grade 9) School Organic Garden Program (grade 10) Student School Greening Partnership (grade 11) and Student Business Greening Partnership (grade 12). It publishes a newsletter, Grapevine.

Rumor Transmission Theory A

Rumor may be defined as an unconfirmed message passed from one person to another in face-to-face interaction (cf., children's game of Gossip or Chinese Whispers) that refers to an object, person, or situation rather than to an idea or theory. Thus, the notions of gossip, grapevine, hearsay, tattle-tale, and scuttlebutt (along with the snowball effect - the increased magnification of material upon the retelling of it) are included in rumor transmission. The American sociologist H. Taylor Buckner (1965) notes that whether a rumor is truthful or untruthful is unimportant in studying rumor transmission. The essential features of a rumor are that it is unconfirmed at the time of transmission, and that it is passed from one person to another. Buckner's theoretical framework for rumor transmission is that the individual is in one of three orientations, situations, or sets vis- -vis a rumor a critical set, an uncritical set, or a transmission set. If the person takes a critical set, he she is...

Methods for Yeast Characterization

Methods by which strains of the same species can be differentiated have been shown to be very important for yeast strain characterization. In winemaking, several studies have analyzed the diverse microflora of grapes and musts and several interesting methods have been developed (Figure 2).

Antioxidants from fruits and berries overview

Some studies have evaluated the phenolic contents in fruits at more than one ripening stage. In the case of plums as well as with red grapes intended for wine making, a marked increase in the content of phenolics of potential antioxidant potency was seen in the fully ripe stage in comparison with the less ripe stage.2,3 In contrast, no clear differences were observed in other fruits, e.g. peaches and Antioxidant composition (anthocyanins, flavanols and proanthocyanidins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin E) of selected, commonly consumed fruits and berries is presented in Table 3.1. Large amounts of anthocyanins (up to 8100mgkg-1) are found in the strongly coloured fruits and berries including bilberries (wild clone of blueberries), blackcurrants, cherries, cranberries, red grapes and raspberries. The amount of flavanols is generally below 150mgkg-1 with larger amounts found in blackcurrants, cranberries, red wine grapes, peaches, plums and red...

Process and equipment

Food processing engineers and food scientists recognize that microbial inactivation is not the only issue when designing high-intensity and UV light irradiation equipment for foods. Designers of equipment used for food products must take into consideration the desirable texture, flavor, aroma and color attributes, as well as nutritional value of a given food and develop equipment that will preserve the highest possible quality. Lagunas-Solar and Pyne (1994) developed a model of high-intensity UV light treatment equipment specifically designed for use for food preservation applications that employs monochromatic excimer lamps set to wavelengths of approximately 247 nm. This equipment is currently under patent review in the United States and in use in Chile for decontamination of grapes for export to the United States.

Online detection of plant stress nonvolatile compounds

As an example, the development and subsequent application of a laser technique specially designed to perform fast and direct analysis of non-volatile compounds in fruits and vegetables, particularly trans--resveratrol in grapes and vine leaves is presented here. The method is based on the combination of LD followed by REMPI and TOFMS detection. The analytical method can be categorised within group (d) mentioned above but it does not use a supersonic beam. It was conceived for intermediate mass resolution (around R 103) at an intermediate level of technical simplicity. 3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene (trans-resveratrol) is an antioxidant compound naturally produced in a huge number of plants, including grapes, as a phytoalexin. Figure 12.5 shows its structural formula. In Vitis spp., trans-resveratrol is accumulated in vine leaves and grape skin in response to various fungal organisms, UV radiation or chemicals101,102 and has been found in wines in concentrations depending on viticultural...

Fermented Not Distilled Beverages

By definition, wine is a fermented product from fruits. By far the most important wine is produced from grapes, although it can be produced from apples, pears, berries, and other fruits. Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca are the most important species. Grape growing is a science itself (viticulture), and wine making is called enology. To obtain a good wine, the enologist must consider the species and varieties used, the climate and soil conditions that dictate the vintage of a good wine, and the time to pick the grapes to make the wine. Europe produces about 80 of the world's wine, with North and South America producing about 14 Africa, 4 Asia, 1 and Oceania, 1 . Whereas in Europe people consume about 30 gal of wine a year per person, the U.S. population consumes 2 to 3 gal per year per person. Grapes are first picked in autumn, when the amount of sugar in the grape stabilizes, then the grapes are stemmed and crushed to separate and remove the leaves and stems. The resultant...

Distilled Beverage Spirits History

Coffey Double Column Still

The first recorded beverage spirits made from grains (corn and rye) were distilled on Staten Island in 1640 by William Kieft, the director general of the Dutch Colony of New Netherland. During the early colonial days, fermented beverages made from sugar-bearing fruits and vegetables were very popular. Pumpkins, maple sugar, parsnips, peaches, pears, apples, currants, grapes, and elderberries provided a ready source. The more aristocratic colonists preferred imported wines. However, in the 18th century colonial drinking customs changed to distilled drinks, especially rum. Rum was made in Barbados as early as 1650. In colonial America, the earliest reference is in the records of the General Court of Massachusetts in May 1657. By 1750, there were 63 distilleries. One of the first acts of the Continental Congress was to establish a

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

During the past 30 years there have been many studies on the application of irradiation for improving shelf life of fresh fruits. These include tropical fruits such as bananas, mangos, and papaya subtropical fruits such as citrus and grapes and temperate fruits such as pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries. Immediately after irradiation, pectin in the 10 to 30 yellow papaya showed depo-lymerization and demethoxylation. However, irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 1.0 kGy of fruit at the 25 to 30 yellow ripeness stage had less depolymerization of pectin and a firmer texture when ripe than the controls. Firmness of the irradiated fruit lasted 2 days longer than the controls. Earlier work in the U.S. showed a consumer preference for irradiated papaya.202 The International Atomic Energy Agency has recently published an excellent book on the use of irradiation as a quarantine method for treatment of fruit such as mangos, papaya, and grapefruit in several countries.203 Thomas204 has reviewed...

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Host Nutritional Effects

Collectively benefit host plants by creating favorable conditions for the proliferation of microflora antagonistic to pathogens such as Phytophthora and Pythium spp. as shown for eucalyptus seedlings by Malajczuk and McComb (1979). Unfavorable conditions induced by AMF colonization resulted in qualitative changes in the mycorrhizosphere that prevented P. cinnamoni sporangial induction in tomato plants (Meyer and Linderman 1986). Proliferation of G. mosseae inside grapevine roots was associated with a significant reduction in replant disease-causing fluorescent pseudomonad inoculum in soil (Waschkies et al. 1994). Promoting AMF diversity that will ensure that at least a component of the AMF community may be active against pathogens can further enhance the benefits of this mechanism.

Agricultural Production And Export

The horticultural crop consists of some 30 types of deciduous and subtropical fruit, together with citrus and a number of vegetable species. Grapes are the most important fruit crop, with more than 80 finding their way into wine production. Wine is largely exported. Significant quantities of oranges, apples, pears, peaches, bananas, and other subtropical fruits are also exported. Fruit accounts for about 60 of the gross value of all horticultural products, vegetables and potatoes some 30 , and flowers, tea, and other products the remainder.

Dynamic Force and Deformation

The important parameters for evaluating texture of horticultural commodities. The sonic vibration method is nondestructive and is suitable for rapid firmness measurement. Sonic measurement generally represents the mechanical properties of the entire product, unlike puncture or compression tests that sample localized tissues. Sonic measurements are excellent for following changes in individuals over time in research applications and are suitable for determining average firmness of grower lots of fruit. Sonics may not be suitable for sorting operations as they have not always proved capable of predicting firmness of individual fruit as determined with a penetrometer (4753). Some of the fruit tested have been apples, avocados, bananas, grapes, kiwifruit, head lettuce, mangoes, melons, peaches, pears, pineapples, and tomatoes.

The Distinction between Conventional Breeding and Genetic Engineering

For thousands of years human beings have altered the genomes of all major crops radically and constantly to change growth and ripening characteristics, speed maturity, eliminate grain shattering, improve taste and reduce toxins, increase size, and even get rid of seeds, as in grapes and bananas. Pictures comparing the wild and cultivated types of any crop invite incredulity because the differences are so sweeping.

Microbially Compromised Fruit Native Yeast Bacterial Fermentations and Late Starter Addition

Usually non-Saccharomyces species from the vineyard and winery-associated Saccharomyces sp. dominate the initial and early stages of fermentation of uninoculated musts. Their growth may result in significant depletion of nitrogen and vitamins such as thiamine. Among vineyard-related native species, Kloeckera Hanseniaspora are typically found at highest population densities. Kloeckera sp. are tolerant of both low temperature and the presence of sulfur dioxide. The yeast can produce high levels of ethyl acetate while significantly depleting nutrient levels.

Origin Botanical Facts

Grapes are among the oldest cultivated fruits. Fossil evidence indicates that grapes were consumed, and possibly cultivated, as early as 8,000 years ago near what is now northern Iran, between the Black and Caspian seas. In precolonial America, native grapes (Vitis girdiana) grew wild along the banks of rivers and streams, but these grapes were very sour. Spanish missionaries traveling north from Mexico in the late 18th century are believed to have brought the cultivation of European grapes to California.

New applications determining the geographical origin of foods

The authenticity and geographical origin of wines produced in Slovenia were investigated by Ogrinc et al. using a combination of IRMS and SNIF-NMR methods.67 Grapes and wines produced in the three different wine-growing regions of Slovenia in 1996, 1997, and 1998 were analysed. The stable isotope data were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Discrimination between coastal and continental regions was achieved with the deuterium hydrogen isotopic ratio of the methylene site in the ethanol molecule (D H)(II), which relates mainly to the fermentation water from the grapes and delta C-13 values. Furthermore, inclusion of 618O o in the principal component analysis and linear discriminat Analysis resolved the two continental regions Drava and Sava.

Biologically Stable Intermediates

Example, when the inhabitants of the hot dry desert areas used to bury dates, figs, and grapes in the hot dry sands to dehydrate them. With partial removal of water, the sugar content of the fruit was high enough to prevent the growth of microorganisms, and the fruit would keep for long periods of time. The fruit could be consumed at a later date without the need for further processing. A number of other technologies were also developed to accomplish this. These include simple dehydration, chemical preservation, pickling, fermentation, canning, freezing, and, more recently, a number of more-sophisticated approaches such as irradiation, hypobaric applications, pulsed light, and so on. All of these were concerned with processing food in a manner that would make it edible at a later date. But with the increasing importance of food fabrication, another concept emerged. Food commodities were essential as ingredients in many formulated foods, and a need arose to have food ingredients...

Yeast Biodiversity In Wineries 21 Yeast Species Diversity During Vinification

Pulcherrima is often present, followed by a group of film-forming yeasts (Pichia anomala) or pigmented species (Rhodotorula sp.). In a general study of yeasts isolated from grapes, however, it was noticed that the profile of yeast species may also vary from region to region (Martini and Vaughan-Martini 1990). Numerous factors affect the total yeast population and the relative proportions of individual species on the grapes. These factors include climatological conditions, the grape variety and the degree of maturity at harvest, the use of fungicides and the physical damage of the grapes (Fleet and Heard 1992). The yeast diversity found in wine-producing regions is strongly related to the quality and organoleptic characteristics of the wine produced from one year to another. However, the most significant finding was that S. cerevisiae is practically absent from grapes and vineyard soils (Martini and Vaughan-Martini 1990). The presence or absence of S. cerevisiae on grapes is the...

Further Advances and Ethical Concerns

Egyptian artwork, dating from between b.c.e. 1550 and 1295, depicts the harvest of the grapes and subsequent counting of the jars of wine. This art suggests that ancient civilizations fermented grape juice to make wine, establishing the basics of a process still used in wineries today.

How quality of fruits and vegetables is measured appearance texture and flavour

Acidity is generally measured by titration with a suitable alkaline solution such as sodium hydroxide. Maturity standards for citrus species are based on Brix-to-acid ratios and both TSS and acidity are important measures of table grape quality. There is no rapid objective method for measuring bitterness or other undesirable flavours in fruits and vegetables. Sensory evaluation is the only commercial test used in the fresh produce sector. In the laboratory, bitter or astringent components (generally caused by phenolic compounds) can be extracted and measured by various analytical procedures, for example, high performance liquid chromatography.

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

Glomus mosseae prevented the infection of soybean plants by P. syringae (Shalaby and Hanna 1998), by suppressing the population density of the pathogen in soybean rhizosphere. Li et al. (1997) also found that G. macrocarpum reduced the infection caused by P. lacrymans in eggplant and cucumber, although no positive growth or yield effect was noted, indicating tolerance to the pathogen as a possible mode of action. Inoculation of mulberry with G. fasciculatum or G. mosseae in combination with 60-90 kg of P per hectare per year reduced the incidence of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. mori (Sharma 1995). Inoculation of grapevines with AMF reduced the number of fluorescent pseudomonads on the rhizoplane thereby reducing the incidence of grapevine replant disease (Waschkies et al. 1994). Similarly, a reduction in the colonization of apple seedling rootlets by actinomycetes causing replant disease was reported, while a proportionate increase in root colonization by AMF was noted...

Microbiology Of Foods

With his disproving of the theory of spontaneous generation, Pasteur introduced the field of fermentations and food microbiology. Since ancient times people have produced wine, beer, bread, and other fermented products without knowing the exact reason for the development of such foods. Pasteur was involved with fermentation because of the occurrence of spoilage in wine at that time in France. He started the project by first proving that alcoholic fermentation of grapes, fruits, and grains was the result of organisms he called ferments. He showed that good wine batches had certain types of ferment and bad batches had other types of ferment. By heating juice at 63 C for 30 min he could kill the bad ferments, and after cooling the juice he could consistently produce satisfactory wine by inoculating ferments from good wine batches into the juice. Not only did he solve the problem of wine disease, but he also developed the process of pasteurization of food and drink. In the process of...

The Potential Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption

In 1992, French scientists published a report that indicated that cardiovascular mortality was much less among predominantly wine-drinking residents of the Mediterranean southern provinces of France than in northern provinces where wine is less frequently preferred, in spite of similar overall dietary components and rates of consumption of alcoholic beverages (Table 1). This report on the 'French paradox' was assumed to confer specific cardiopro-tective benefit to wine, but was soon tempered by in vitro studies, which showed that the protective effect of wine on the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein could be mimicked by constitutive antioxidant fla-vonoids present not only in grapes but in many other fruits and vegetables. Another epidemiological study concluded that the lower mortality risk among wine drinkers compared to non-wine drinkers could be attributed in large part to a better life style, including less smoking, more exercise, and better diet. Subsequent population studies...

Alcoholic Beverages And Human Responses

Alcoholic beverages are, in essence, flavored solutions of ethanol. The flavors may come from grains, as in beer or from grapes and other fruit, as in wine or from any source of carbohydrates, grains, sugar, or grapes, as in whiskey, mm, and brandy. In addition, consumers may add their own flavors, as lime with some beers or fruits with some wine or carbonated sodas with distilled spirits. The spectrum of flavors is wide indeed. But the purpose of drinking any of these is to supply ethanol in measured doses to the user. Whether alcohol appeared first from grapes as wine or from grain as beer or from honey as mead is not known. The catalyst that converts any of these into alcohol is ubiquitous. A recipe for beer has been found on a clay tablet from Mesopotamia some 4000 yr old. It was probably known during the new Stone Age, some 6000 yr ago. All but three or four of the many cultures that have survived to modern times knew alcohol. It is absent from polar people and Australian...

Vinification And Phenolics

As seen in Figures 3,4, and 6, the phenolic content of wines changes from vintage years and by grape varieties. Further phenolic changes in grapes have been noted from site of production, probably depending on a number of factors such as weather and soil conditions and grape degree of maturity. Catechins and procyanidins are observed at the highest level during the early stages of grape maturity and then decrease somewhat rapidly. Anthocyanins, developing in grape skins, steadily increase during maturity. After grape harvest, American winemakers usually first destem the grapes. Destemming in some European cellars is a current enological practice. Destemming grape clusters produces wines with less catechins and procyanidins. Some evidence indicates only a small reduction in epicatechins as compared to about a 25 reduction in catechin and procyanidins in wines from destemmed grapes. Macerating red grapes with skins and seeds, and in some cases with stems, usually does not exceed 10 days...

Gestational Development and Lactogenesis

Extensive mammary development occurs during gestation, at which time mammary growth is exponential and driven by hormones of pregnancy. 1,2 Epithelial development during pregnancy gives rise to true alveoli that emanate from the distal termini of ducts. The resulting structures have been likened to clusters of grapes, wherein the grapes represent alveoli and the stems represent ducts that drain these secretory units. Alveoli consist of a single layer of epithelial cells overlain and engulfed by a few myoepithelial cells and their processes. During pregnancy, mammary epithelial cells undergo extensive cytological and biochemical differentiation necessary for transition to an organ that is capable of producing copious quantities of milk during lactation. 4 The process of cellular differentiation to a secretory state is termed lactogenesis. The timing of lactogenic events differs among species, but generally some synthesis of milk protein and fat is

Non Nutrient Antioxidants

The same is true for the polyphenolic flavonoids, anthocyanins, and various other plant-based non-nutrient antioxidants in the diet. Many of these have antioxidant powers far higher than those of vitamin C and vitamin E when tested in in vitro systems. Dietary intake can be similar to that of vitamin C (100mgday-1 or higher), but, as their bioavailability is low, plasma levels of individual flavonoids and other phenolic antioxidants are very low or undetectable. The major dietary polyphenolic compounds are quercetin, kaempferol, myricitin, and the catechins. These flavonoids are found in onions, apples, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, teas, grapes, and wine. Moderate wine intake, especially of red wine (which is very rich in polyphenolic antioxidants), is associated with a significant

Quality deterioration of fresh produce water loss

The speed of post-harvest water loss is dependent primarily on the external vapour pressure deficit however, other factors will influence the situation. Products with a large surface to volume ratio such as leaf crops will lose a greater percentage of their water far quicker than large spherical fruits. The specific structure of the cuticle and the extent of suberisation in the periderm appear to be more important than thickness in improving resistance to the movement of water vapour. Produce varies in the percentage of water which can be lost before quality is markedly reduced. Fruits with thick peels can lose a considerable amount of moisture from the skin without compromising edible quality, for example citrus species, bananas. The appearance of the fruit will, however, deteriorate steadily with increasing water loss. Other thin-skinned fruits are more susceptible to water loss, for example, table grapes (Ben Yehoshua, 1987). Furthermore, dehydration of all products can stimulate...

Conclusions and future trends

The development of new laser-based techniques has had a tremendous impact on plant defence science and consequently on the improvement of natural resistance in fruits. Indeed, the high resolution of these techniques together with their capability to work on-line have made possible plant screening for secondary metabolites with unprecedented sensitivity. This, in turn, has allowed not only the characterisation of genetically modified plants with enhanced resistance to decay, but also the study in real time of the physiology and dynamics underlying the plant-pathogen interaction. Good examples of both types of application have been presented here, namely genetically modified tomatoes which exhibit enhanced antibiotic emission of acetaldehyde and, on the other hand, monitoring of resveratrol in Botrytis infected grapes. resveratrol to grapes and HWRB of various crops are excellent examples of this 'know-how' in post-harvest treatment.

Intraspecific Variabilities

The use of active dry yeasts is of particular interest to the wine industry, since the sensory properties of the final product vary considerably from one year to another depending of the microbial flora present on the grapes (Querol et al. 1990). It is generally assumed that indigenous yeasts are suppressed by the starter however, different studies show that indigenous yeasts can still participate in the fermentation (Schiitz and Gafner 1993 Querol et al. 1992a), although an implantation of only 50 was observed when fermentations were conducted by some commercial strains (Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 2000). For these reasons, rapid and simple methods for the routine verification of yeast strain present in fermentations would be useful to check the implantation of the starter.

Using The Socratic Dialogue

Everyday experiences can be used as therapeutic metaphors. These can then be referred to in the course of the therapy. Aesop's Fables are one example of the kind of metaphor that can be used to make therapeutic points. For example, the notion of sour grapes is a powerful image that can elicit both content and affect. The question then might be, Is this an example of sour grapes

TABLE 123 Phenolic Substances

Tannins have evolved to be less desirable foods for herbivores, and they may protect the plant against microbial and fungal attack. There are two subgroups of tannins the condensed and hydrolyzable compounds (Figure 12.7). Hydrolyzable tannins include gallic, digallic, and ellagic acid esters of glucose or quinic acid. Tannic acid is an example of a hydrolyzable tannin. Condensed tannins are fla-vonoids. They tend to polymerize at positions where carbon bonds link the monomers. Tannins such as gallic acid can tie up metals. Tannins are found in tropical fruits such as mangoes, dates, persimmons, and in tea, coffee, grapes, wine, and cocoa. Black tea contains oxidized tannins. Tannins have been reported to cause liver injury (necrosis and fatty liver). Tannins bind proteins or cause precipitation of proteins, inhibiting digestive enzymes. They also reduce the bioavailability of iron. In the Far East, betel nuts are often chewed after dinner, and because they contain 26 tannins, are...

Maintaining the quality of fresh produce controlled atmosphere CA storage

High levels of CO2 can also have a direct inhibitory effect on certain pathogens. The upper limit for CO2 levels depends on the sensitivity of the crop. Many berry crops have a high tolerance for CO2, for example, blackcurrants destined for processing into juice are often held under 40 CO2. Levels above 15 will significantly reduce incidence of grey mould on strawberries, raspberries, cherries and grapes (Kader, 1997) and small scale CA storage structures are in increasing use with these crops.

Ethyl Carbamate Formation

Grapes from high-vigor vines and or heavily fertilized vineyards have high levels of arginine (> 400 mg L). Modifying vineyard fertilization practices, utilizing yeast strains that release less urea, and timing the fortification of dessert wines when urea concentrations are low may reduce ethyl carbamate formation (58). Commercial ureases produced from Lactobacillus fermentatum are available for postfermentation treatment of wines (60).

Stone fruits

The extracts of two different varieties of sweet cherries were superior to various berry extracts (blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries) in inhibiting lipid oxidation in an in vitro phosphatidyl lecitine model system in contrast, the relative antioxidant activities of the same cherry extracts on human LDL oxidation in vitro were lower than that of blackberries and raspberries, but higher than that of blueberries and strawberries when evaluated at the same micromolar concentration of 10 M total phenols.29 The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts of berries against lecithin liposomes were significantly positively correlated to the content of hydroxycinnamates, but the amount of flavanols correlated to the antioxidant potency of extracts of berries in neither the in vitro LDL oxidation systems nor in the lecithin liposome assay.29 Extracts of sweet cherries were found to be the best among a large number of other fruits in inhibiting oxidation in vitro of a pool...

Interlabial Masses

The tumor arises in the distal vagina in younger girls, whereas in older children it originates more commonly on the anterior wall of the vagina near the cervix. Tumor growth fills the vagina with a mass that assumes the shape of a cluster of grapes, often prolapsing through the urethra or vaginal introitus. All growths with such an appearance should be presumed malignant until proved otherwise. Other symptoms may include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, or a palpable abdominal mass.


Citrus fruits, of the family Rutaceae, date back over 4000 years and are believed to have developed on the slopes of the Himalayas in northeastern India. They soon spread throughout Europe and were introduced to the Americas by Columbus. Citrus juices constitute a major portion of the worldwide fruit products and are second only to grapes in volume. Worldwide production of oranges was estimated in 1992 at 36 million metric tons. Japan was the leading producer, at 1.9 million tons, with U.S. production at 310,000 tons (5).

Salivary Secretion

Salivary Gland Schematic Diagram

The microscopic structure of the salivary glands is similar to that of the pancreas and analogous to a bunch of grapes. A single grape corresponds to the acinus, which is the blind end of a branching duct system and is made up of a group of cells called acinar cells (Fig. 1). The acinar cells secrete the initial salivary fluid, consisting of electrolytes, mucus, and enzymes. From the acinus, saliva passes relatively unchanged through a short, intercalated duct and into the striated duct. The striated duct is lined by columnar epithelial cells that function like renal tubule cells to modify the inorganic composition of saliva. The combination of the acinus, intercalated duct, and striated duct represent the secretory unit or salivon of the salivary gland. The basement membranes of the acini and intercalated ducts are covered in part by specialized contractile cells called myoepithelial cells. These cells are shaped somewhat like stars, and the motile extensions contain actin and...

Grape Juice

The development of bulk storage of grape juice paralleled the experience with tomato juice, but the products are different primarily due to the higher sugar content and flavor lability of grape juice. The aims are similar. The Concord grape juice industry primarily in the eastern United States is used for juice, jams, jellies, and fruit juice drinks. The western U.S. grape industry is about 10 times as big and is used for wines, brandies, raisins, juices, and fruit juices. Both have a need for bulk storage of grape juice. Friedman (8) attributed the development of the Concord grape juice industry in the last 70 years to three major technological developments (J) bulk storage of juice, (2) continuous processing, and (3) mechanical harvesting. Continuous processing was introduced about 1955 to replace the batch process being used by the apple and grape industry prior to that time. The batch process consisted of crushing the heated grapes and building a pad of grapes on a filter cloth on...

Novel Traits

There are three goals of the creation of more flavorful yeast (1) the use of yeast to enhance the natural grape flavors and aromas, (2) the creation of strains that produce novel flavors not currently found in the grape, and (3) the construction of yeast strains that will carry out some of the important reactions associated with the malolactic fermentation. Many grape aroma compounds are present in the fruit in the form of nonvolatile precursors, or glycosidically bound molecules (reviewed in (79)). The glycoside moiety holds the compound in solution. Only the free compounds (nonglycosidically bound) are aromatic. Unbound or free terpenes impart floral and intense fruity notes to grapes and grape juice. The attachment of a glycoside group prevents volatilization and therefore detection of these compounds. Bound terpenes are hydrolyzed over time thereby maintaining the aroma characteristics of the fruit. The grape glycosidase are inhibited by glucose and are therefore not active in...

Pancreatic Secretion

Exchange Between And Ions

The structure of the exocrine pancreas resembles a cluster of grapes and its functional units are similar to the salivons of the salivary glands. Pyramidal acinar cells are oriented with the apices toward a lumen to form an acinus (Fig. 18). Groups of acini form lobules separated from each other by areolar tissue. The lumen of each spherical acinus is drained by a ductule whose epithelium extends into the acinus in the form of centroacinar cells. Within each lobule, ductules join to form intralobular ducts. These in turn drain into extra-lobular ducts, which join to form the major pancreatic collecting duct draining the gland.


Despite many contrary reports, ochratoxin is known to be produced by only one species of Penicillium, verrucosum. Aspergillus ochraceous and several related species also produce ochratoxin on grapes and coffee (17,107,108 M. Frank, unpublished data, 1999). A small percentage of surface-disinfected wheat and barley kernels collected at harvest in the UK and Denmark were contaminated by P. aurantiogriseum and P. verrucosum,', this was similar in studies done in western Canada over many years. Infestation of some kernels by the ochratoxin-producing fungus P. verrucosum occurs from anthesis, and surface contamination is common at harvest. The absolute level of prehar-vest infestation varies according to site and season (5).

Phenolics In Wine

Irans-Resveratrol (Fig. lc) levels in wines, which are somewhat higher in red wines than whites, was first shown to be generally under 1 mg L (6). This compound is considered to be a phytoalexin. Phytoalexins in grapes and other plants are formed in response to stress, especially microorganisms causing disease, and are part of the plant's response mechanism for disease resistance. The importance of irans-resveratrol in wine is its antioxidant effect on human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent (7). Probably with the combination of other antioxidant fiavonoid compounds in wine resveratrol may be effective in inhibiting the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (see The French Paradox).

Polyphenol Oxidases

Nevertheless, it is generally accepted that much of the browning in fresh fruits is caused by the enzymic action of o-diphenol oxidoreductases now classified as O2 o-diphenol oxidoreductase (EC. Apples are one of the most common fruits worldwide and hence there is considerable interest in apple polyphenol oxidases as a cause of excessive enzymic browning in juices, purees, and dried powder. However, for the manufacture of cocoa, coffee, and tea, enzymic browning is not only beneficial but is essential. In green coffee beans the main precursors of browning identified by HPLC and UV-absorbtion spectra are the chlorogenic acids, 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 3-CQA and 4-CQA.117 In tea catechin, epicatechin and their gallate esters are oxidized to quinones that then undergo condensation and polymerization to form a range of colored compounds including theaflavins and thearubigens. Undesirable enzymic browning caused by PPO on the surface of foods is of great...

Nonsulphite dipping

Enzymic discoloration of fresh prepared produce is one of the major causes of quality loss and spoilage during post-harvest handling, processing and storage (Sapers, 1993 Laurila et al., 1998). PPO (EC is the enzyme primarily responsible for the discoloration of fresh prepared potatoes, apples, carrots, parsnips, swede, pears, mushrooms, bananas, peaches, grapes and lettuce, and this discoloration is often the shelf-life limiting quality attribute for these items (Duncan, 1999). PPO activity also results in detrimental changes to the texture and flavour of fresh prepared produce and losses of nutritional quality (Whitaker, 1996).


The most commonly aspirated foreign bodies fall into two groups foods and toys.26 The most dangerous objects are those that are cylindrical or small, smooth, and round. Commonly aspirated foods include peanuts, sunflower seeds, raisins, grapes, hot dogs, and smaller sausages.

Total Nitrogen

Nitrogen compounds in grapes play important roles as nutrients for microorganisms involved in winemaking and wine spoilage and as aroma and aroma precursors (7). Nitrogen is taken up by the vine roots as nitrate and reduced by the nitrate reductases system to ammonia, transported and stored subsequently as amino acids (7). Compared with fermentable carbon generally present in grapes at > 20 (w v), total nitrogen levels range from 0.006 to 0.24 , of which only 0.0021-0.08 is biologically available to fermenting yeasts (8). Thus, nitrogen may become an important growth-limiting constraint for microorganisms.


Cultivated currants, of the family Saxifragaceae, are currant-bearing shrubs grown in the temperate and cold regions of both North and South America. Currants are extremely cold hardy, and their culture extends nearly to the Arctic Circle. Red and white currants are Ribes sativum, and black currants are R. nigrum. The flowering currant is R. odoratum. The black currant produces a more vigorous plant with a higher yield and stronger flavor than the other types and is probably more important commercially however, it is a minor crop. A hybrid of black currant and gooseberry named Jostaberry is even more vigorous and produces fruit that looks like a black currant except larger Jostaberries are attracting the interest of home gardeners. Currants are used to make jams and jellies and as a very flavorful juice concentrate for addition to other juices. Dried currants are not from the Ribes genus but are dried grapes from the Black Corinth cultivar of V. vinifera. They are sometimes called...

Chemical Composition

The composition of any colorant containing anthocyanins will reflect the composition of the raw material. At present it is grapes and red cabbage, but other sources may become available in the future. About 275 anthocyanins are known currently and are part of about 5000 flavonoid compounds of similar chemical structure (4). The anthocyanins are composed of an aglycone (anthocyanidin), sugar, and perhaps organic acids. Twenty-two aglycones are known, of which 18 occur naturally. Only 6 are important in foods, and the structure of these is shown in Figure 1. Free aglycones occur very rarely in plants and are nearly always combined with sugars. One reason for this is that the sugars stabilize the molecule. In order of relative abundance, the sugars are glucose, rhamnose, galactose, xylose, arab-inose, and glucuronic acid. Anthocyanins may also be acylated, which adds a third component to the molecule. One or more molecules of p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, malonic, or acetic acids may be...


Multiple evaginations or alveoli emerge in an arrangement resembling a bunch of grapes. The alveoli consist of a single layer of secretory epithelial cells surrounded by a meshwork of contractile myoepithelial cells (Fig. 11) Many lobuloalveolar ducts converge to form a lactiferous duct, which carries the milk to the nipple. Each mammary gland consists of 10 to 15 lobules, each with its own lactiferous duct opening separately to the outside. In the

Phenolic Compounds

In addition to color, polyphenols also contribute to food flavor and other qualities. For example, astringency of polyphenols and its ratio with sugar and acid are important and useful criteria for determining the overall quality of fresh fruits, fruit beverages, and wines. Some polyphenols, such as chalcones and related compounds found in citrus fruits, are exceedingly sweet or bitter. Both bitterness and astringency of wine are due to phenolic compounds present in grapes. There have been many claims for the adverse effect of polyphenol compounds on dietary proteins. Tannins have the potential to affect many aspects of digestion due to their affinity for proteins, and the tannin-protein complex decreases its digestibility (4). Another important function of polyphenol compounds in terms of the human health benefit is the growing evidence that suggests that polyphenol compounds in the diet have a long-term health benefit and may prevent or reduce the risk of some chronic diseases....

Occurrence In Nature

The alicyclic carotenoids (eg, -carotene) are very common in higher plants, bacteria, fungi, algae, and animals. It has been estimated, on the basis of structure, that some 50 to 60 alicyclic compounds have potential vitamin A activity. Apricots are an excellent source of p-carotene (60 ), whereas the level in tomatoes (10 ) and peaches (10 ) is much lower. Papaya, if it is yellow orange, is a good source, whereas the red flesh papaya contains mainly lycopene. Where the flesh is green, some plastid pigments would be present and thus some 9-carotene would be present. Red grapes, pears, figs, red apples, and beet root, although brightly colored, are not good sources of -carotene.

Assimilable Nitrogen

The nitrogenous components of grapes and juice that are metabolically available to yeasts are present as ammonium salts (NH4+) and primary or free a-amino acids (FAN). Combined, the two groups are referred to as Yeast-Assimilable Nitrogenous Compounds or YANC (13). Thus, a complete evaluation of the nutritional status of juice or must requires measurements of both fractions. In grapes, NH4+ ranges from near 30 to more than 400 mg L (14,15), whereas in wine, levels of less than 50 mg L have been reported (16). Numerous studies have demonstrated the priority of NH4+ uptake by yeasts relative to amino acids. Jiranek et al. (17) and Monk et al. (18) reported that NH4+ was not only incorporated preferentially to a-amino acids but also altered the established pattern of amino acid uptake. All of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids are found in grapes and wine. Their total concentration ranges from 0.4 to 6.5 g L (19). Of these, only the a-amino acid FAN fraction is directly assimilable by...


Flavan-3-ols, often referred to as flavanols, are the most complex class of the flavonoids because they range from simple monomers (catechin and its isomer epicatechin) to the oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins, which are also known as condensed tannins. Proanthocyanidins can occur as polymers of up to 50 units, and when hydroxylated they can form gallocatechins or undergo esterification to form gallic acid. Red wine contains oligometric proanthocyanidins derived mainly from the seeds of black grapes. Green tea is also a rich source of


Some species, particularly Woodsia obtusa, are superficially similar in appearance to assorted species of Cystopteris. Both genera are deciduous and noted for breaking dormancy early in the spring. The indusia are different, however, with Cystopteris sori covered with a hooded indusia and Woodsia indusia looking like a napkin drawn up around a bunch of grapes (Mickel 1994). Mature Woodsia spores are brown whereas those of Cystopteris are black. In addition Cystopteris usually creeps whereas many woodsias tend to be clump forming. And finally, in the author's opinion the woodsias are far more ornamental and enhance their garden value by holding their fronds well into autumn without turning ragged.


In 1980 the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that further information on the chemical properties of caramel be obtained to establish a suitable classification and specification system. This reaction is common to a number of natural extracts and also to some manufactured colorants. For example, with the colorants from grapes, no manufacturer has attempted to provide a chemical profile of the components of the extract. This is understandable in view of the complexity of the chemical profile. A somewhat similar situation occurs with a synthesized product such as FD& C Yellow No. 5. When it was approved for food use in 1916, the manufacturers wanted to produce as pure a product as possible. The impurities they had to cope with were un-reacted ingredients and about three compounds produced by side reactions. In the usual process of chemical synthesis, the desired reaction does not...


Raisins are a very old product and have been known since biblical times. Raisin production spread from the Middle East to many other parts of the world. The United States and Turkey produce two-thirds of the world production of about 1 million metric tons. Raisins are produced from varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera) that have a high sugar content. The sultanas produced from the Thompson seedless variety of grapes are the most well-known. Grapes to be dried into raisins are picked by hand and spread on paper trays between the rows of grapevines. The grapes on the trays have to be turned to promote even drying. They are then transported to the packing shed for cleaning, grading, adjustment of moisture content, and packaging. Raisins are usually added to bakery products, breakfast cereals, confections, chocolate bars, and the like. Raisins can also be used to make brandy, such as the aniseed-flavored ouzo in Greece or raki in Turkey.


Also referred to as agrestum or agraz in the medieval cookbooks, verjuice was the tart juice of crab apples, unripe grapes, or other unripe fruit that was frequently added to medieval dishes. Classified as extremely cold and moderately dry by physicians, verjuice was used in much the same way as vinegar, especially in cooling sauces that were designed to counteract the heat of roasted meat. Produced commercially and for individual use when the fruits were in season, verjuice was normally kept for a whole year.


More recently, there has been an interest in the use of 02 at high concentrations as MAP gas. High 02 concentrations (70-100 ) have also been shown to inhibit Y. enterocolitica, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae (Gonsales Roncero and Day, 1998 Amanatidou, 2001). High 02 MAP has been found to be particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic discolouration, preventing anaerobic fermentation reactions and inhibiting microbial growth (Day, 2003). It has been used to extend the shelf life of fresh produce such as meat, lettuce, strawberries, raspberries, grapes and oranges.

Sorbitol Xylitol

D-Sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, the reduction product of D-fructose, occurs extensively in fruits, e.g., in apples, cherries, pears, plums, but is not contained (or only in traces) in grapes, grape juice and wine. (A remarkable content of D-sorbitol in grape wine, grape juice and vinegar from wine indicates the addition of the prohibited use of apples or apples products in production.) The concentration of D-sorbitol may be used for the calculation of the apple juice content of beverages declared as 'contains apple juice'.

Champagne Processing

Champagne processing is a fascinating subject and deserves some discussions. About 250 years ago a monk named Don Perignon in the Champagne region of France discovered the process of making champagne. He exclaimed, Come and see I am drinking stars. Champagne making is now a highly regulated manufacturing process under the control of the French government. At the perfect time of maturity of the grapes (chardonnay, pinot meunier, and or pinot noir), they are picked by hand. Great care is taken not to bruise the delicate skin of the grapes during the harvesting stage. The grapes are then transported to the winery to be pressed to obtain the grape juice. Four thousand kg or 8800 lb of grapes are placed in a tub called marc. Each marc is pressed several times, yielding a total of 2550 L as laid down by the rules of appellation, which calls for 1.6 kg (3.52 lb) of grapes per liter of juice. The first three pressings yield 2050 L of first-quality juice known as the cuvee. A final pressing...

Fining of Wines

Examples of three major wine anthocyanin flavonoids. (a) Malvidin (b) Delphinidin (c) Peonidin. Rx and R2 are glucose (3,5-diglucosides), except in V. vinifera grapes and wine, where Ri is glucose and R2 is H (3-monoglucosides). Figure 5. Examples of three major wine anthocyanin flavonoids. (a) Malvidin (b) Delphinidin (c) Peonidin. Rx and R2 are glucose (3,5-diglucosides), except in V. vinifera grapes and wine, where Ri is glucose and R2 is H (3-monoglucosides).

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