Build Your Own Greenhouse

Tiberian Growdome System

Are you tired of dealing with so-called organic foods or or vegetables that you know are covered in lethal chemicals? If you are, why not grow your own food? It is not nearly as hard as people make it out to be Growing your own food is one of the most rewarding things that you can do! You are being healthy in two ways; you're growing all-natural foods AND you're staying fit by growing food! This ebook teaches you how to make a simple device from ancient times that allows you to grow the very best food that you can at home! This device is much like a small greenhouse You will be able to control the climate inside to make sure that your plants are always in great weather. Don't go along with the rapidly expanding food prices; start growing your own, and don't play the game of people that want to hurt the food supply with chemicals and genetic engineering! Read more here...

Tiberian Growdome System Summary


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Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Production Systems

The burning of fossil fuels and allied human activities of recent centuries result in increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the earth's atmosphere. These major gases and other miscellaneous gases and particles act like a greenhouse, blocking portions of the long-wave radiation of sunlight energy back out to space. The amount of blockage, and thus warming, varies with the gas. The warming potential of CH4 and N2O are 23 and 296 times stronger than CO2 per kilogram of gas added to the atmosphere. Radiative forcing has caused a global warming of an estimated 0.6 C with the potential for much more warming and a cacophony of related climate changes with future greenhouse gas (GHG) releases over the coming decades as described by the International Panel on Climate Change. 1 Globally, the major anthropogenic GHG is CO2 ( 55 ) from fossil-fuel combustion in autos, power plants, etc. with CH4 (from landfills, livestock, rice fields, etc.)...

Biological Effects Of Greenhouse Gases And Climate Change

The combustion of these resources is returning much of this to the atmosphere. The CO2 and other anthropogenic gas emissions have already resulted in more than 1 increase in the amount of energy from the sun being trapped at Earth's surface (Section 14.2.2). Now the question is What are the biological and ecological effects of the greenhouse gases and the global warming that they are expected to cause A population may respond to changing climate by shifting its range. However, in some cases this may not work with changes caused by greenhouse gases. One reason is that the data and predictions indicate that the temperature change is coming faster than in natural climate changes of the past. Furthermore, human settlement has fragmented natural terrestrial ecosystems, isolating them into reserves or ecological islands.'' Thus, spatial shifts may run up against barriers of inhospitable environments, lacking appropriate habitats or food sources. In the...

Interaction Of Living Things With The Environment

It is not only chemical changes that are wrought, but also physical ones, from the temperature of Earth to the form of our landscape. The temperature of Earth's surface is strongly affected by plants' ability to remove carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that prevents radiation of heat energy from Earth into space. Bacteria in the gut of termites have been found to be responsible for the release of methane gas, another greenhouse gas, into our atmosphere. Trees, grasses, and other plants reduce soil erosion, affecting the shape of the landscape.

Making A Global Estimate

Using the Raboy and Dickinson 25 procedure based on a formula weight of 659.02 for PA, the PA values were calculated from published values for PA-P. The PA-P value was multiplied by 3.55 to obtain the PA amount. Because grains produced on field grown plants generally have lower P concentrations than those grown in greenhouses 26 , our estimate used data from field grown plants, wherever possible. Lott et al. 1 estimate contains information on how the

Asplenium antiquum Japanese birds nest fern

Culture and comments Essentially for outdoor cultivation in Southern California, Florida, or comparable sites in greenhouses or living rooms elsewhere, this fern is easier to maintain than its cousin, Asplenium nidus. As with most epiphytes it should not be overpotted. It likes bright filtered light, porous soil, and a minimum of watering.

Methodological Considerations

The other empirical examples refer to three different types of co-dominant nuclear markers Firstly, isoenzyme coding gene loci that are widely used for genotyping with respect to expressed genes (for survey see Paule 1990 Fineschi et al. 1991 Baradat et al. 1995 Muller-Starck 1998) secondly, nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs La Scala 2000) and finally, a set of EST markers (expressed sequence tags) that were newly developed from a cDNA library of Norway spruce and tested under various greenhouse and field conditions (Schubert et al. 2001 Schubert and Muller-Starck 2002). Most of the EST markers correspond to coding nuclear genes with partially or fully known function and were proven to follow a Mendelian mode of inheritance PA0002 (A-like cyclin), PA0005 (cyclophilin), PA0034, (non-identified gene), PA0038 (halotolerance protein HAL3), PA0043 (high-molecular heat-shock protein), PA0055 (ATP synthase beta chain), PA0066 (60S ribosomal protein L13-2), and CAD (cinnamyl alcohol...

Near Critical Gas Solvents

Carbon dioxide is harmless to the environment and creates no waste products. Considerable expense is thus avoided. The use of carbon dioxide as extraction solvent does not contribute to the greenhouse effect because the gas is obtained as by-product of fermentation processes and chemical reactions. The world-wide CO2-amount in the atmosphere is not increased by extraction processes but only by burning gas, mineral oil and coal.

Introduction the importance of modelling to quality

In fact, effort in modelling has been proportional to the ability to control the cultivation system, that is, greater for greenhouse than for field production. In greenhouse production, modelling has focused on yield prediction, optimisation of climate and fertigation (the application of fertilizer through an irrigation system) control and evaluation of strategies of crop management. In field production, it has been dedicated more to the prediction of harvest dates and to the estimation of water and nutrient requirements. In this chapter the processes of tomato production, the various areas of application of models and the future trends in the modelling of tomato production and quality will be reviewed.

Areas of application climate control

Our understanding of model-based climate control encompasses all the approaches where new climate set-points are determined using either information output from the model or the knowledge contained in the model itself. Optimal control is probably the most widely used method to exploit available models and determine 'optimal' crop environmental conditions.90-92 Climate control application of crop models within the framework of optimal control also requires a model of the greenhouse climate because the control variables directly modify the climate. The plant behaviour is driven indirectly through its responses to modifications of the environment. In one of its simplest forms, the climate optimisation problem is defined as follows using a crop dry matter accumulation model and an algebraic expression of the greenhouse climate model, find the day- and night-time temperatures that maximise a cost function, balancing the relative growth rate and the heating costs (CO2 enrichment can also be...

Areas of application irrigation and fertilisation

In both field and greenhouse production, there is an increasing pressure to improve the policies of irrigation and fertilisation that should both satisfy the objectives of production and quality and avoid losses of nutrients in the environment. At the time of writing, empirical methods are used they should be improved with mechanistic models that are being developed. In greenhouses, computers are used to monitor radiation and to control the quantity of water that is provided for open systems (on soil or soil-less), that is, the calculated evapotranspiration plus about 25 run-off to avoid salt concentration in the root substrate. In closed soil-less systems, the water input must fit the crop demand to maintain the total volume of circulating nutrient solution. In the field, new DSS are designed to calculate the proper water supply. For example, the IRRIGERE software, designed for field tomatoes, estimates the daily evapotranspiration from climate and crop development and the soil water...

Areas of application plant protection

From these strategies of plant protection, actions can be implemented fungicide spray, insect release or climate control. In this last field, the use of knowledge engineering was suggested by Kozai.104 It was then realised in the SERRISTE expert system,105 in which prevention of grey mould is a major constraint for the selection of the proper time-course of temperature and humidity in greenhouses.

Current and future developments in modelling

From this overview of the various processes of tomato production that have been modelled, it appears that a large range of methods have been mobilised to design research or engineering models. In the fields of carbon and, to a lesser extent, water and nutrient uptake, mechanistic approaches have often been preferred. Much effort has been dedicated to the formation of yield, mostly based on the space and time integration of net photosynthesis. Practical outputs of this research can be found in the controls of greenhouse climate, of irrigation and fertilisation, and of crop management. Yet, before models could be used for designing strategies or producing decisions, they often had to be simplified. Some modelling approaches seem to be well adapted to this goal. For example, the SERRISTE project109,110 has opted to use artificial intelligence techniques to represent the knowledge involved in both the greenhouse climate management task and the crop response. Agronomical knowhow, obtained...

Sources of further information and advice

For more information, readers can refer to some general books on the tomato crop112 and on greenhouse cultivation.5,113 Scientia Horticulturae published a special issue on 'crop modelling in horticulture' (1998 74, issue 1-2) and Agronomie on 'greenhouses, environment and product quality' (2001 21, issue 4).

Cheilanthes farinosa Farinose lip fern

Culture and comments The white waxy undercoating, typical of this species, is especially attractive and can best be enjoyed from below. pot culture, good drainage, and winter dry horticultural husbandry are most likely to produce encouraging and long-lasting results. i annually transport my container-grown plants from a comfortable, winter-unheated, and freeze-resistant greenhouse to the full exposure of Pacific Northwest summer sunshine. i am rewarded with a healthy display of xerics in a winter greenhouse. My spores were a gift from san Diego specialists. And, it must be noted, the species is better adapted to the warmth and longer days of theirs and comparable climates.

A general conflagration

The existence of great fires at the KT boundary also seems to be attested by the presence of soot and natural wood charcoal discovered at Raton Basin in 1984, and later in Denmark, Spain, and New Zealand. High concentrations, of several milligrams per square centimeter, are associated with iridium but also with abnormal levels of arsenic, antimony, and zinc, which are of terrestrial origin. The signature of the carbon-13 isotope that forms this soot is similar to that of the charcoal from natural organic molecules synthesized by plants. Ed Anders and Wendy Wolbach, of Chicago, thus estimate that almost all living matter, the biomass, burned. According to these partisans of the impact theory, part of the Earth's vegetation was ignited by the fireball generated by the shock and by the thermal radiation of the particles that subsequently fell back down through the atmosphere and thus underwent considerable heating. The soot from these fires, added to the dust mobilized by the impact,...

Manure Fuel Production And

The use of manure as a substitute for fertilizer N may become more attractive as energy costs increase. Natural gas is used to produce a large fraction of fertilizer N, and natural gas accounts for 75 90 of the cost of making anhydrous ammonia. Conserving manure N may be of much greater importance as energy costs continue to escalate. Furthermore, it will reduce carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) generation during the manufacture of N fertilizer.

Biocontrol of Leaf and Stem Blights

Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum Fr. Fr.) Sacc. is an important pathogen on greenhouse- and field-grown cucumbers and other cucurbits, and causes the disease gummy stem blight. The disease is favored by warm, humid conditions and the pathogen infects stems, fruit, leaves, and flowers of susceptible plants, especially through wounded or senescing tissues, and natural openings such as stomata and hydathodes. There are few reports on the potential of using biological control agents to control this disease. Utkhede and Coch (unpublished) applied the yeast R. diobovatum and the biocontrol agent

Air And Water Quality

A major impact on air quality is the quantity of methane produced by ruminant livestock and wild herbivores (80 100 m tonnes per year) and its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and the effect that this may have on global warming and ecosystems. Wild herbivores have been

Carbon dioxide and the biological pump

Marc Javoy and Gil Michard, of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the University of Paris VII, have since modeled the climatic effect that would have resulted from some 50 volcanic events on the scale of those that created the great lava flows in the traps, on the hypothesis that each of them would have lasted several years and had been separated from the next by several millennia.4 According to them, the effect of each injection of carbon dioxide, amplified by the gradual destruction of the biological pump and above all the repetition of these injections, which the ocean would be less and less able to absorb, ultimately multiplied the atmosphere's carbon dioxide content by a factor perhaps of more than five. Through the greenhouse effect, this would increase the temperature of the lower atmosphere by more than io C - a considerable rise.5 These models involve great uncertainties, and other researchers envision thermal effects of only a few degrees. However, the likely...

The Current Scientific View

Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, conferences and studies were instituted by a wide range of national and international organizations. The culmination of this activity was the 1990 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The process that led to the development of this report involved 170 scientists from 25 countries 200 other scientists reviewed the results. The goal of the IPCC process was to determine the international scientific consensus about climate change. The conclusion was that if emissions of greenhouse gases (primarily carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide) continue as usual, Earth's mean surface temperature could rise 0.2 to 0.5 degree centigrade per decade, with a likely warming of 1 degree centigrade by 2025, and 3 degrees centigrade by the end of the twenty-first century. This would be the greatest temperature change to have occurred on Earth for at least 10,000 years. Although some remain skeptical, one thing that is...

Moral and Political Issues

The rich countries of the world have loaded the atmosphere with the greenhouse gases that may already be changing climate. They have benefited from their actions by developing economically. While rich countries have gained the benefits, the deleterious effects of their emissions will be felt by everyone. If climate change-induced floods occur in Bangladesh, it will not be due to the actions of the Bangladeshis. They will not have caused the floods, nor will they have benefited from the past emissions of greenhouse gases that caused them. In addition to these historical inequities in emissions, there are important differences in present emissions. A handful of industrial countries emit between one-half and three-quarters of all greenhouse gases. Yet at the United Nations-sponsored Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the rich countries were unwilling to agree to timetables and targets even for stabilizing their emissions, much less reducing...

Origin botanicAl facts

Celeriac is propagated from seed, usually sown in pots or greenhouses in early spring, and then transplanted to the field in May. It requires a fertile soil that is rich in organic matter. For a large corm (underground stem base) to develop, a long growing season and plenty of water are required. Thus, celeriac thrives in moist, temperate climates. In midsummer, the outer leaves are removed, and the plant is mulched or fertilized to assist growth and moisture retention. Lateral shoots also are removed to create a single

Origin Bot AnicAL FACTs

Celery requires a moist, rich soil for good growth. It is especially successful in low-lying, alkaline areas such as the eastern regions of Florida and Great Britain. Because of its high water content, celery requires large amounts of moisture otherwise, the stalks become stringy and tough. Celery is propagated from seeds so tiny that it takes more than a million of them to add up to a pound. Most commercially grown celery is planted in March or April, in greenhouses or seedbeds with controlled watering.

Role Of Biocontrol Agents In Healthcare

Challenges and prospects for integrated control of powdery mildews in the greenhouse. Can J Plant Pathol 19 310-314. Budge SP and Whipps JM (2001). Potential for integrated control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in glasshouse lettuce using Conio-thyrium minitans and reduced fungicide application. Phytopathology 91 221-227. Dik AJ and Elad Y (1999). Comparison of antagonists of Botrytis cinerea in greenhouse-grown cucumber and tomato under different climatic conditions. Eur J Plant Pathol 105 123-137. Dik AJ, Verhaar MA, and Belanger RR (1998). Comparison of three biological control agents against cucumber powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) in semi-commercial-scale glasshouse trials. Eur J Plant Pathol 104 413 -423. Eden MA, Hill RA, and Stewart A (1996). Biological control of Botrytis stem infection of greenhouse tomatoes. Plant Pathol 45 276-284. Elad Y, Zimand G, Zaqs Y, Zuriel S, and Chet I (1993). Use of Trichoderma harzianum in combination or...

An ecological disaster movie

We have already seen what climatic events might be provoked by an injection of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride gases short-term cooling together with destruction of the ozone layer,17 leading to an increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface, acid rain, and over the longer term perhaps a greenhouse effect, with warming and intensified acidity in surface ocean waters.

Areas of application yield prediction and crop management

The demand for yield prediction varies with the tomato cultivation system. In field production, determinate cultivars are selected to obtain fruits ripe for a single harvest. The expected time of harvest and expected amount of product are predicted to enable an integrated planning of production and processing. For example, Wolf et al.85 estimated the times of emergence, flowering, turning stage and harvesting of tomatoes for processing based on the heat sums. McNeal et al.86 went a step further and predicted the mass of fruits at harvest using a greenhouse tomato crop model (TOMGRO) adapted to field conditions. In greenhouse production, yield is planned for a long period of time. In negotiations with These crop models, used to evaluate the biological consequences of policies of crop management, are still far from real decision support systems (DSS). For this purpose, the models should describe not only the dynamics of the crop and of its physical environment (greenhouse climate and or...

Effects Of Environmental And Other Factors On The Phytate Content

Environmental fluctuations, growing locations, irrigation conditions, types of soils, various fertilizer applications, and year during which a cultivar or variety is grown influences phytate content of seeds and grains. Bassiri and Nahapetian 188 observed that wheat varieties grown under dry land conditions had lower concentrations of phytate compared with the ones grown under irrigated conditions. Nahapetian andBassiri 189 , Singh andReddy 59 , Miller etal. 190,191 , Feil and Fossati 192 ,andSimwembaetal. 55 reported variations in the phytate content of triticales, wheat, rye, oats, and pearl millet grown at different locations and in different years. A variation in phytate content of navy beans was observed by Proctor and Watts 193 as a result of variety and location effects. Griffiths and Thomas 194 reported that the phytate phosphorus content of broad beans, when calculated as a percent of total phosphorus, increased significantly from 39.5 to 57.7 for beans grown under greenhouse...

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacillus subtilis is known to produce diverse antifungal peptides represented by inturins. A series of fungicidal metabolites, named rhizocticines, were identified from B. subtilis ATCC6633 (Figure 2) (Fredenhagen et al. 1995). These peptides showed control efficacy against B. cinerea on apples and vines in the greenhouse. The proteolytic digestion test of the compound revealed that L-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-(Z)-pentenoic acid was the actual structure active against B. cinerea. The antifungal activity was proven to be stereo specific, since the corresponding 3-(E) compound did not show any antifungal activity. The mixture of rhizocticines A, B, and D also showed control efficacy against gray molds on grapes in the field.

Mass and energy balances of tomato crops 541 Carbon

Basically, the production of biomass by a canopy relies on the net assimilation of atmospheric CO2, that is the balance between gross photosynthesis and respiration. It depends on the amount of available energy (light) and carbon substrate (CO2), and on the ability of the canopy to intercept light and assimilate CO2. In greenhouses, the assimilation of CO2 is not only important for crop growth, it interacts strongly with the composition of the atmosphere. The daily consump tion of carbon by a tomato canopy can be up to 10 times the amount of carbon available in the greenhouse atmosphere.6 It must be balanced either by ventilation or by CO2 enrichment. The respiratory efflux of CO2 is significant on a daily basis, it can represent a quarter to a half of the gross photosynthesis of a developed greenhouse tomato crop.6,9 Respiration of plants has functionally been divided in two components maintenance and growth respiration. Maintenance respiration corresponds to the energy needed to...

Biocontrol of Powdery Mildews

Biological Control Powdery Mildew

Verticillium lecanii has been described as a mycoparasite of powdery mildew fungi as well as a pathogen of insects and it has been developed as a biocontrol agent of insects on greenhouse crops. Strains of V. lecanii differed in their level of antagonism against the powdery mildew pathogen of cucumber, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, under laboratory conditions (Askary et al. 1998). Application to cucumber leaves prior to mildew infection and incubation under high (> 95 ) relative humidity conditions reduced mildew development (Verhaar et al. 1997). The high humidity requirement for growth of this mycoparasite was reduced by the addition of an oil formulation (Verhaar et al. 1999). Infection of S.fuliginea by V. lecanii resulted in disorganized cytoplasm and plasmalemma disruption, possibly due to chitinase enzyme activity (Askary et al. 1997). A commercially available formulation of A. quisqualis AQ10 has been extensively evaluated against powdery mildew development. On cucumbers grown in...

Biocontrol of Gray Mold

Botrytis cinerea Pers Fr. is an important pathogen on many vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions as well as under field conditions. Under high humidity conditions or when free moisture is present on the plant surface, the pathogen infects fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems causing tissue decay. This is followed by prolific sporulation of the pathogen, producing a gray mold appearance. Wounded tissues are especially susceptible to this pathogen. Much of the research activity to achieve biological control of B. cinerea on vegetable crops has centered around the use of T. harzianum, followed by Ulocladium spp. and a number of yeasts, as described later. Isolate T-39 of T. harzianum (marketed as Trichodex ) provided control of gray mold as well as a number of other fungal diseases of cucumber under commercial greenhouse conditions (Elad 2000a). T. harzianum T-39 was applied as part of a gray mold management program in alternation with chemical fungicides. The biocontrol agent...

Wetlands Nutrient Relationships

As discussed elsewhere, wetlands also have an important role in global carbon cycling. Peat-accumulating wetlands are major sinks for carbon, providing negative feedback for global warming. On the other hand, they are a source of atmospheric methane, which is another greenhouse gas.

Biological Waste Treatment

In practical terms, the application of this leads to two major environmental benefits. Firstly, and most obviously, the volume of biowaste consigned to landfill is decreased. This in turn brings about the reduction of landfill gas emissions to the atmosphere and thus a lessening of the overall greenhouse gas contribution, while also freeing up space for materials for which landfill genuinely is the most appropriate disposal option. Secondly, good biological treatment results in the generation of a soil amendment product, which potentially can help lessen the demand for peat, reduce the use of artificial fertilisers, improve soil fertility and mitigate the effects of erosion.

Plant Genetic Engineer

A plant genetic engineer must be familiar with the characteristics that distinguish plants from other types of organisms. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have tough cell walls, which must be penetrated to reach the DNA. Also, some genetic material resides in the organelles called plastids, the largest of which is the chloroplast. The engineer must also be able to regenerate an altered plant cell into a plant, test that plant in a greenhouse, and, finally, see how well it flourishes in a field environment. For example, tomato plants can be given a gene from A. thaliana that enables them to grow in very salty water. Developers of such a crop must analyze how the plant that can now grow in brackish or salty water will affect other types of plants that normally grow in that environment. Thus, in addition to understanding genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, a plant genetic engineer working on an agricultural variant must also have expertise in plant development and

Polystichum lepidocaulon

Culture and comments An elegant species, it has not been hardy in temperate Zone 8 cultivation. I envision it thriving in the company of tree ferns in the coastal, morning fog areas of san Francisco Bay and northern california. With its handsome luster, it is well worth a prominent site in a select niche in cool greenhouses where the temperatures do not drop below freezing.

Gender Roles in Economics

Greenhouse overall 4 29-8 18 It is clear from this general table that certain acts continue to be gender specific. In general, women tend to perform the activities that are either inside or close to the household, and men, the acts that require travel into outlying areas. This food production and resource management data can be further analyzed to understand what, if any, age ranges the activities are specific to. Children are involved in many of the same activities as women, and their contributions start from an early age. Around the home it is not uncommon to see children helping with cow care, such as general tending, leading the herd to water or pasture, and feeding helping with gardening and greenhouses and learning from an early age splitting, stacking, and carrying firewood. Children are also taken along to participate in berry foraging, haying, and some forms of fishing.

Pyrrosia linearifolia

Culture and comments I have maintained a sprawling plant, somewhat confined to a pot, but definitely accepting of benign neglect, for half a dozen years in Zone 8. it is casually nurtured in an unheated greenhouse during the winter, and the offspring, easily produced from rhizome cuttings, have survived, unprotected, the vagaries of winters with brief minimum temperatures of 18 F (-8 C). In severe situations, it can always be given a blanket for the evening lows.

Definition and Measures of Seasonality

Is present for 2-3 months a year, often coinciding with rains, leading to cyclical stress on the health and nutrition of rural populations. Agroclimatic seasonality is relevant in populations practising subsistence agriculture and among hunter-gatherers, or in other agricultural systems in which background food security is poor such as in areas where cash crops are mainly planted. Human interventions can alter this pattern, by changing the water and sun exposure conditions, with irrigation and greenhouses, but these techniques are not accessible to the majority of peasants in LDC.

The Discovery of Anthropogenic Climate Change

In the eighteenth century Benjamin Franklin surmised that the hard winter of 1783 to 1784 was due to excessive dust in the air, either from the destruction of meteorites or from volcanic eruptions. Early in the nineteenth century the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830) speculated that the atmosphere might function like the glass in a greenhouse, warming Earth's surface by preventing heat from escaping. In 1861 British physicist John Tyndall (1820-1893) showed that slight changes in the composition of the atmosphere could significantly raise Earth's temperature. The Swedish Nobel Prize winner Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) theorized in 1896 that the use of fossil fuels would increase atmospheric carbon dioxide, thereby changing climate and affecting biological processes. He calculated that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide would lead to an increase of four to six degrees centigrade in Earth's mean surface temperature. In the 1930s the British engineer George...

Fermentation Anaerobic Digestion

Although the ruminal fermentation is generally beneficial to the animal, in some cases, the end-products of the ruminal fermentation can be detrimental to the animal, or even to the environment. Some bacteria ferment specific amino acids (tryptophan) and produce 3-methylindole, which can be inhaled by the animal, resulting in asphyxiation (bovine emphysema). Other problems that can be traced to production of harmful end-products of the rumen fermentation include bloat (swelling of the rumen caused by gas production) and lactic acidosis (accumulation of strong acid in the rumen, which damages the tissues of the rumen and inhibits the beneficial fermentation). Some of the ammonia produced from ruminal protein fermentation is not utilized by the animal, but is excreted in the urine and directly impacts the environment (environmental nitrogen pollution). Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas produced by ruminal microorganisms that is eructated (belched) by all ruminant animals.

Polystichum lemmonii Shasta fern

The stipe with dark brown or occasionally bicolored (dark brown with paler margins) scales varies in length from one-fourth to one-third of the frond. Blades are satin-green, once-pinnate linear to linear-lanceolate, with 20 to 25 pairs of pinnae that terminate in scalloped spine-tipped, blunt apices. Fronds are tipped with species-characteristic buds that willingly root when encouraged by being placed in a nest of garden humus or incubated in friendly, humid greenhouse conditions. The medial sori, produced on the upper half of the frond, have peltate in-dusia.

Polystichum setiferum Soft shield fern

'Plumoso-multilobum' (feathery, multiple lobes), synonym P. setiferum 'Plumosum-densum', is another magnificent quadripinnate cultivar that makes an impressive and buoyant understory evergreen. Pinnae and pinnules overlap, producing a dense froth of pale green. This form comes easily and rapidly from bulbils, especially when encouraged by greenhouse conditions.

Climatic catastrophes is the past the key to the future

This is not the place to construct a predictive model of the climate based on the current production of aerosols and gases - and at any rate, I would not be able to do so. Moreover, the uncertainties are still considerable even the famous greenhouse effect is still a matter of debate. Some scientists say there is no doubt that the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere, caused by industrial activity and artificial heating, is responsible for a warming of our planet that has still barely begun. But others, such as Yves Lenoir and Claude All gre, cite the good correlation between the ancient carbon dioxide contents measured in cores drilled from Arctic and Antarctic ice2 and the temperature over the last few glacial and interglacial periods. These two distributions are themselves correlated with the Milankovic cycles.3 Since these cycles relate to purely mechanical variations - astronomical variations in the different parameters of the Earth's orbit and...

An Example Toxic Anorexia in Ditches in a Flower Bulb Cultivation Area

Significant differences in daphnid grazing effectiveness can be found between different locations in this area. The grazing effectiveness is expressed as CR*Cf (see Chap. 2), which means that high values (b, c) indicate efficient grazing of algae by daphnids, and low values (a, d, e, f) inefficient grazing. Locations a, d and e are situated in the middle of an extensive bulb cultivation area. Location f is located in the middle of a horticultural area with greenhouses and some flower bulb

Plantmicrobe interactions

Although straying away slightly from the remit of this section, it is interesting to point out that soil microbial activity has a major influence in the balance of stable atmospheric gases. These include the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous and nitric oxide and methane, so called because they trap heat re-emitted by earth from energy radiated by the sun. The atmospheric balance of less stable gases which include ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and dimethylsulphide are also subject to microbial activity, as will be apparent from an understanding of the foregoing chapters on metabolism. A final word on soil microbes concerns the degradation of lignin. This is a major constituent of woody plant material and is recalcitrant to degradation. However, filamentous fungi are responsible for its degradation worldwide, augmented in the tropics by bacteria living in the gut of termites. This degradation requires the presence of oxygen, hence wood residing in anaerobic conditions is somewhat...

Woodwardia martinezii

Culture and comments At 2 ft. (60 cm) this is a manageable sized fern for the greenhouse, but it is worth testing outdoors in Zone 8 (if you have more than one plant) and should be reliable in Zones 9 and 10. it has not been available commercially in the United States, but is grown in Britain and Europe. propagate it from spores.

Asplenium flabellifolium Necklace fern walking fern

Culture and comments With its cascading fronds, the necklace fern makes a wonderful basket display especially when the tips can be secured so that they root and walk about in the basket. The plant can be overwintered in Zone 8 in a cool, frost-free greenhouse. In all locations it needs to be out of the reach of roving slugs.

Woodwardia orientalis Oriental chain fern

Culture and comments I keep my plant in an unheated greenhouse during the winter, but this is an excellent candidate for warm areas including heated greenhouses. Fronds heavily dressed in buds tend to droop, so basket culture is ideal. Wherever grown, fertile plants are certain to be a conversation piece. Propagation is easily achieved with the buds. Give some away

Nitrogen Cycle Reservoirs

Nitrogen Cycle Ammonification

Despite its low concentration, atmospheric CO2 is a significant compartment. Its turnover time in Earth's atmosphere is about three years. Atmospheric CO2 is an important greenhouse gas that affects the temperature of the Earth. In preindustrial times its concentration was about 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume). However, it is now about 350 ppmv and increasing by 1.5 ppmv per year. This level is already higher than levels going back 160,000 years, based on measurements in bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice core samples. Over that period, Earth's temperature correlated with atmospheric CO2 concentration. At the current rate of increase, it will be double the preindustrial level in several decades. surface. What is not so well settled is how much this extra heat energy will increase the temperature at the surface, called the global warming or greenhouse effect. A variety of mathematical climate models have been developed which predict an increase of from 1.5 C to 4.5 C, with a most...

Adiantum capillusveneris Southern maidenhair Venushair fern

Culture and comments Descriptions note that nearly every frond is fertile and my nursery would testify to that. For me this is a weed (or at least a volunteer) in the comfort of my humid greenhouse. By contrast, it is rather short-lived in my naturally acidic garden where accommodations need to 'Imbricatum' (overlapping), known in the trade as 'Green Petticoats', is a magnificent cultivar with layers of cascading bright green shingles of foliage. Spores breed true for this strictly indoor plant, which is at its best as a coveted d cor in humid greenhouses. It is a challenging beauty. For best results, water the pot and not the fronds.

Common Dryopteris Ferns In Asia

Dryopteris gymnosora (naked sori) is included only because it is periodically available commercially. The new fronds are reddish but quickly become edged in brown. This fern has persisted in my greenhouse for many years and I admire it for a few weeks every spring. Otherwise, it has potential for moist gardens in Zones 9 and 10 where it will need supplemental humidity as well. It is apogamous and the sori are not covered byindusia.

Formation of product quality

The quality of tomato fruits covers a number of different characteristics among which more attention has been paid to fruit grade. The average fruit fresh weight can be modelled based on the weight and number of harvested fruits. The fruit potential growth rate is a genetic parameter. In tomato, it increases from cherry over cocktail to round and beefsteak cultivars. Within the range of genetically determined fruit grades, the actual fruit size can be controlled in greenhouses by climate and crop management. Larger fruits can be obtained by increasing net assimilation with, for example, CO2 enrichment or by decreasing competition for assimilates by, for example, fruit pruning. These behaviours are simulated by the TOMGRO model in the SIMULSERRE simulator, different strategies of climate and crop management can be evaluated in terms of the time course of weekly yield and average fruit grade.64

Fernery Trees Different Items

Blechnum cartilagineum (like cartilage), the gristle fern, is an Australian with outlying populations in the Philippines, New Guinea, and India. It colonizes in swamps and on marshy streambanks. Monomorphic, leathery 2- to 4-ft. (60- to 120-cm) fronds, with metallic, bronze to pinkish new growth, are once-pinnate with pointed pinnae. In spite of its native haunts, it is more accepting of dryish conditions than other blechnums and should acclimate in Zones 9 and 10 or in transitional greenhouse regions between the humid and normal atmosphere sections. Blechnum gibbum (humped, referring to the swollen stipe), the dwarf tree fern from the South Pacific Islands, is an appropriate fern for gardens, greenhouses, and conserva- Blechnum orientale (of the East) grows in Japanese lowlands (as weeds according to Iwatsuki et al. 1995) and the tropics in huge 3- to 5-ft. (90- to 150-cm) bushels of rosy, once-pinnate fronds. It is a showstopper in the humidity of greenhouses, conservatories, and...

Limitations To Using Manure As A Fertilizer

Ammonia losses range from 30 to 40 of total N excreted. Nitrate losses typically range from 10 to 30 and denitrification 2 to 5 of total N applied. High nitrate leaching contaminates groundwater and increases losses of N via denitrification. Although denitrification may constitute only a small percentage of applied manure N, N2O contributes to global warming and ozone depletion. The highly interactive nature of manure N transformations and pathways of N loss necessitate that manure management be based on an understanding of the trade-offs involved in conservation of one N form and concomitant increases in other N losses (Table 2). For example, manure injection into soil to reduce ammonia loss (and improve air quality) may increase nitrate leaching (and reduce ground water quality) and increase denitrification (greenhouse gas formation).

Dryopteris erythrosora Autumn fern

What Are Bulbils From Ferns

'Prolifica' is a finely cut, smaller version of the parent with propagable bulbils appearing sporadically along the rachis. The bulbils are more likely to be produced when the plant is slightly stressed (inducing survival ). To propagate simply and reliably, prick off the bulbils and incubate them in the comfort of a moist greenhouse enclosure or, as previously described, in pots capped with inverted clear plastic cups. Sporelings are consistently attractive, but not always bulbiferous.

Blechnum discolor Crown fern

Dimorphic. culture and comments Blechnum discolor is easily identified by the lightness of the frond underside, which makes it an ideal plant for hanging or posting up where the discolor can be admired. The Maoris use the fronds with their white undersides as trail markers. Crown fern enjoys rich soil and greenhouse culture but I, for one, would like to try it in protected microhabitats in Zone 8. British specialists are cultivating it successfully. The spores are very, very short lived and must be sown as soon as ripe. Stolons provide a better propagation option, producing plants that are willingly separated and reestablished in composty soil.

Types of tomato production

A greenhouse can contian various types of equipments to control the environment.5 The temperature can be increased by heating, for example by burning natural gas, oil or coal, or by using thermal screens during the night. The temperature can be reduced by natural (vents) or forced (fans) ventilation, or by absorbing heat through evaporation of water applied via cooling pads or fog systems, or by cooling the cover material using water sprinklers. The light level can be controlled with shading screens, by whitening the cover, by using roof materials that have a greater light transmission and by applying supplementary lighting. Water vapour is released by crop transpiration. The air humidity can be decreased by ventilation, sometimes in combination with heating. It can be increased by evaporation of water using, for example, a fog system. The CO2 concentration in the air can be increased (or maintained at normal levels when greenhouses are closed and crop photosynthesis is active) by the...

Role Of Mrgs In Biocontrol And Strain Improvement

1999), as well as the corresponding gene disruptants (Carsolio et al. 1999 Woo et al. 1999). The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. atroviride was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42 fold in multicopy strains as compared to the nontransformed strain. Multicopy transformants reduced disease incidence by about 10 . Furthermore, a 30 higher degradation of the chitin content in R. solani cell walls was observed during interaction with the overexpressing Trichoderma than with the wild type, when quantified by transmission electron microscopy (Carsolio et al. 1999). In the case of the gene disruptants no differences in their efficiency to control R. solani or S. rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments, as compared to the nontransformed control strains (Carsolio et al. 1999). In a second study (Woo et al. 1999), a reduction of the antifungal activity in vitro of the ech42 disrupted strains towards B. cinerea was observed. However, in vivo tests...

Growing Ferns Indoors

Can Ostrich Ferns Grow Indoors

Many ferns, such as adiantums (maidenhairs), have high humidity requirements, and these give indoor ferns a reputation as being temperamental. The easiest way to maintain them is in a cozy greenhouse. In the average home the most popular accommodation is to sit the pot on a tray of pebbles and water. Another option is to group plants in close proximity so that they offer humidity to each other. Do not mist them. Contrary to the recommendations of some authorities, I do not mist any indoor ferns as the moisture can remain on the foliage and eventually lead to mold and rot. This is especially a concern with maidenhairs or the dense ruffled Nephrolepis types where exposure to air is minimal and consequently evaporation takes place slowly.

Selaginella kraussiana

Culture and comments This is an easily established walking ground cover in moist shady understories where it will spread under (and sometimes over) the companion ferns. In severe winters it turns a ghastly gray, but rejuvenates, like the rest of us, with the arrival of spring. In greenhouses, beware, as it can take control in moist pots and flats. Fortunately it is easily removed and transferred to a more appropriate location. description This branching, lax upright creeps, with non-invasive good manners, in woodland litter where it forms a small colony of treelike triangular foliage. Approximately one-third to one-half of the reddish stem is naked. Above that the stem is green and 10 to 15 branches subdivide into small twigs of compressed linear leaves. In mature plants the ultimate branch tips produce gemmae (small conelike fertile structures), which drop and sprout in favorable conditions (especially in greenhouses). Foliage color varies from spring greens to the warm reds of fall...

The International Perspective

The other motto, Think globally act locally, recognizes that environmental problems have important global dimensions, particularly because carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses threaten to cause climate change. To some extent the international community has dealt successfully with environmental threats for example, the Montreal Protocol, an international accord signed in 1987, initiated controls on the production of chemicals that damage stratospheric ozone. And conventions aimed at preserving endangered species and controlling the harvest of common resources whales, for example have long exerted influence on the international community. In 1997, industrialized nations, including Japan, the United States, and members of the European Union, promised at Kyoto that by 2012 they would cut to significantly less than 1990 levels, and permanently limit their production of, CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, believing that...

Polypodium formosanum Caterpillar fern

Culture and comments Gardeners in Southern California and comparably warm climates can easily introduce this to their collections. it is best displayed as a basket specimen, however, where the crawling collection of greenish caterpillar rhizomes is as interesting as the plant itself. Elsewhere, use it as a cool greenhouse or, on a space-available basis, indoor conversation piece. it is not fussy about soil types and blessedly tolerant of benign neglect.

Recent Success in Fungicide Development from Antifungal Leads

Images Biofungicides

Since strobilurin A and oudemansin A were found to be fungicidal metabolites in Basidiomycete fungi Strobilurus tenacellus (Anke et al. 1977) and Oudemansiella mucida (Musilek et al. 1969), respectively, a number of structurally related compounds were reported to have fungicidal activity. Each member of this family incorporates a methyl b-methoxyacrylate group linked at its a-position to a phenylpentadienyl unit, and all the compounds except strobilurin A carry either one or two additional substituents on the benzene ring that render structural complexity (Figure 1). Their mode of action on mitochondrial respiration, binding at a specific site on cytochrome b, is not shared by any other known class of fungicides (Sauter et al. 1995). The unique mode of action may not provide a chance of cross-resistance between b-methoxylacrylates and other fungicides. Although strobilurin A has excellent in vitro activity against a range of fungi, it did not show any useful in vivo activity in the...

Uniformitarianism replies

The early nineteenth century witnessed the opposition - sometimes violent - of the catastrophist school and the uniformitarian school. Yet this theoretical quarrel did not prevent geology from growing. Quite the contrary. Lyell's views would ultimately triumph and make it possible to found a great many branches of modern scientific geology. In fact they remain deeply ingrained in the minds of most geologists, even as recent history has made us familiar with the concepts of evolution and dynamism and, unfortunately, given vigorous new life to the notion of catastrophe. Nuclear war, overpopulation, famine, desertification, the greenhouse effect, the hole in the ozone layer - so many threats, real or assumed, that frighten us and that our newspapers outdo one another in reporting - all are birds of ill omen for the agitated end of a millennium. Are humans at risk of disappearing, the victims of their own folly or of a Nature gone haywire If, as Lyell thought, the present must be our key...

Propagating Ferns

Greenhouses, while extremely efficient as well as wonderfully ambient work sites, are more labor intensive, as seasonal adjustments are required for a proper light-to-shade balance and in cold winter areas precautions must be in place for snow loads. At the other extreme, a workspace as small and convenient as a north-facing kitchen window can handle several cultures and be under the watchful eye of the propagator. It is a practical and totally expense-free option for getting started. Whether you choose a minimum arrangement or a full-blown propagation facility, I hope you too can find the special pleasure and reward in being up to your elbows in soil, watching and tending your progeny, and eventually bringing new ferns into your life and garden.


Aglaomorpha (Greek aglaios, splendid, and morphe, shape) is a genus of large epiphytes that consequently like basket culture and good drainage. The tall fronds grow from large and broad bases designed to catch litter. Bases often turn a papery brown in maturity. Leathery fronds are pinnatifid and are striking in conservatory or greenhouse settings, but can grow as house-plants where space is not limiting.


Araiostegiapseudocystopteris (false Cystopteris), synonym A. pulchra, is a soft green, deciduous species from China and the Himalayas and a near relative of Davallia. Silver-edged pale tan scales press against the creeping rhizome seemingly waiting to be named after some sort of animal foot. The stipe is greenish brown, and the foot-long (30-cm), shiny green, triangular blades are tripinnate to quadripinnate. Sori are on the veins and held by a broad cuplike indusium. My plant grows in a glazed pot that has assorted geometric designs cut away from the sides. The rhizomes escape via the holes making for a novel departure from basket culture. I keep the plant in an unheated greenhouse for the winter (2005 low was 28 F, -2 C) but it should weather outdoors in Zones 7b to 10.

Culture Systems

There are various sizes and types of tanks being used in stocking elvers. The most commonly used, however, is the circular concrete tank, about 5 m in diameter and 60 cm in depth. Tanks are usually built under greenhouses and heated to above 25 C by thermostatically controlled electric immersion heaters (10). This is to protect the elvers from low temperatures.

Shorter Note

Camptosorus sibiricus (from Siberia), Asian walking fern, synonym Asplenium ruprechtii, is from Japan, Korea, Manchuria, China, and eastern Siberia and although smaller is extremely similar to its North American counterpart. The frond base is tapered rather than heart-shaped and it is widest at the mid frond. This species hybridized with C. rhizophyllus quite by accident in an ohio greenhouse producing a fertile offspring, Asplenium crucibuli. Both are hardy in Zones 4 to 8 but vulnerable to slug and snail damage.


Cyathea can be propagated from spores, but many species are rooted from loglike cuttings, if you would, of the trunks, sunk in moist soil and surrounded by constant greenhouse humidity. It takes quite some time and they need to be supported and kept moist throughout the process. I have also seen them reduced in height in conservatories by an air layering system. The trunks are wounded and wrapped in a moisture-retentive moss or other sterile material and secured with a cloak of opaque plastic. When sprouts emerge, the total plant is beheaded, giving a lower canopy as well as a new plant.


As with the Louisiana irises, studies of annual sunflowers have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolutionary role of hybridization (e.g. Heiser 1951b, 1958 Rieseberg 1991 Rieseberg et al. 1999 Gross et al. 2004). In particular, recent analyses have resulted in fitness estimates for a variety of experimental hybrids and their parents, in both greenhouse and field environments. These estimates have then been utilized to predict the course of past evolutionary change resulting in adaptive trait introgression and or hybrid speciation.

Risk and Insurance

Some commentators have tried to transform the ethical problems implicit in the possibility of climate change into problems of rational choice. One approach has been to think of the possibility of climate change as a risk, and the costs of emission reduction, mitigation, and adaptation as the premium paid for insurance against this risk. However tempting this approach may be, the insurance metaphor is misleading. An insurance company is able to set rational premiums because of actuarial tables that are based on the frequency with which compensable losses occur. But however strong the theoretical reasons are for thinking that climate change will occur, researchers have nothing like actuarial tables that tell them about the frequency of climate change when the atmosphere is loaded with greenhouse gases. Moreover, the idea that society is in a position to reasonably assess the potential damages of climate change is quite absurd. No one knows what all the economic and health effects of a...

Future Prospects

In the 1930s Macro-centrus homonae was introduced into Sri Lanka from Indonesia to control the tea small leaf roller (Adoxophyes) with such success that no chemical control measures are needed for this pest even today. More recently there have been some impressive results from using predator insects, for example in the control of cassava green mite (Mononchellus tanajoa) in West Africa and white fly in European greenhouses.


Cystopteris bulbifera has bulbils the color and size of peas loosely distributed on the undersides of the fronds. These will drop, roll about, and reproduce without human assistance. Others, most commonly on assorted polystichums and especially Poly-stichum setiferum cultivars, remain fixed on the frond and benefit from some judicious midwifery. When there are just one or two bulbils at the tip of the frond such as with P. andersonii and P.lentum, I peg the tip down on surrounding soil in the fall and let nature take its course. I do, however, pamper the rare bulbiferous sterile hybrids, such as P. xdycei. On these I remove the bulbils from the frond and pin them individually on the moist surface of light compost in a 4-in. (10-cm) pot, invert a clear plastic cup on top, creating a personalized greenhouse, and bring the whole into the plant room. Generally I do this in the fall, but one spring I happened upon an unexpected cache of similar bulbils. I picked them and put them in a bowl...

Blechnum brasiliense

Evergreen, 2 to 4 ft. (60 to 120 cm). Zones 9 and 10, or greenhouse. culture and comments New growth is a striking, saturated vermilion, fading in time to shiny green. This fern is an Oscar-winning attraction in greenhouse luxury where it appreciates bright light, neutral loamy soil, and a humid atmosphere.

Yield formation

Different approaches of modelling biomass production have been developed for different crop species including tomato. In the 'photosynthesis-driven' models, integration of net photosynthesis and conversion of the resulting photoassimilates into biomass are used to compute the accumulation of dry matter. Challa and Bakker47 estimated the potential production of greenhouse crops in various regions of the world using this approach. It is also the first step in most of the tomato crop models.16,17,48 Bertin and Heuvelink13 compared the dry matter production estimated by the models of Jones et al.16 and Heuvelink.17 In the RUE approach, the production of biomass is considered to be a sequence of energy conversions from the incident radiation to the energy content of biomass. Interception of radiation is linked to the leaf area index by a saturationtype curve the coefficient of conversion of intercepted light into biomass is higher for C4 (e.g. maize) than for C3 (e.g. tomato) species and...

Carbon sequestration

In the century since its effectiveness as a means of trapping heat in the atmosphere was first demonstrated by the Swedish scientist, Svante Arrhenius, the importance of reducing the global carbon dioxide emissions has come to be widely appreciated. The increasing quantities of coal, oil and gas that are burnt for energy has led to CO2 emissions worldwide becoming more than 10 times higher than they were in 1900 and there is over 30 more CO2 in the air, currently around 370 parts per million (ppm), than before the Industrial Revolution. Carbon dioxide is responsible for over 80 of global warming and according to analysis of samples of the Antarctic ice, the world today has higher levels of greenhouse gases than at any time in the past 400 000 years. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has warned that immediate action is required to prevent further atmospheric increases above today's level. In the absence of swift and effective measures to control the situation, by 2100...

Location of Flower

When studies are carried out in botanical gardens or greenhouses, it is possible to observe the pollinators or to smell the flower scent at various times to assess the flower's biorhythm. However, in locations such as the rain forest this may not be practical, especially for night-scented flowers. To collect and identify samples at the peak of a flower's biorhythm, an automated collection system was developed (30). This is shown in Fig. 12. The portable sampling device consists of a manifold containing 12 headspace traps. Each trap is connected via a microvalve to a pump. A computer is used to switch the valves open, turn on the pump, and control the duration of the collection. The scientist typically knows if the flower emits its scent during the day or night, and each trap will be set to collect a 1 hour sample over 12 hours. Subsequent analysis identifies the collection period at which the plant was producing its maximum scent. The analytical data of this headspace sample is used...


It is clear that RA containing herb extracts have wide potential applications for functional food and pharmacological applications. In optimizing RA biosynthesis for such applications the potential role of microbial elicitation and proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway (PLPPP) has been exploited to develop clonal tissue culture systems of single seed genetic origin that can be grown in traditional and efficient greenhouse and agronomic systems. Such clonal systems allow the screening of phenotypic specific RA enriched herbal herbs extracts that offer potential for consistency for various applications and design of health specific functional foods. Further, using clues about the role of proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway as a CCP in relation to RA biosynthesis in herb clonal systems (Figure 8.4), a model has been developed for the mode of action of RA in mammalian and human systems (95,96) (Figure 8.6). In this model for animal systems, RA has been hypothesized to stimulate...

Polystichum rigens

Culture and comments This species is slow growing and similar in effect to Polystichum tsus-simense with the latter having linear rather than the lanceolate scales. Polystichum rigens prefers a site enriched with compost in full shade and willingly tolerates the testing hot and humid summer climates of gardens in the eastern and central United States. When young this species gives off a slight eau de skunk which is not distracting in the garden but can attract circumspect comments when gathered in the greenhouse.


There are 300 or so species, cosmopolitan in distribution but mostly tropical, including, however, some that are cold tolerant. Many serve admirably as decorations in homes and offices. The rhizomes are generally erect but occasionally short-creeping. The common name refers to the resemblance of the proportionately long stipes of Pteris to the similarly long legs of the bracken. These stipes are ridged or prominently grooved and usually have one vascular bundle. Evergreen to deciduous blades have very few sets of widely separated long and narrow winglike pinnae with free veins. The sori surround the outer pinnae edges and are enclosed in recurved marginal tissue (making them botanical relatives of such visually and ecologically disparate species as Adiantum and Pellaea). Many brake ferns are dimorphic with slender upright fertile fronds. In addition many of the species are apogamous, reproducing directly from prothalli, which, with such proficiency, allows...


They are uniformly deciduous with pale to bright green thin-textured monomorphic, hairy foliage and definitely grow from creeping rhizomes. Vascular bundles are two, and the sori are often naked or briefly covered with a kidney-shaped indusium. They come all too readily from spores (often as a bonus surprise in the greenhouse) and are efficiently easy from divisions. Grow them in the moisture-laden back forty where a quick fill of greenery is desired but not a focal point.


This relationship of energy and matter within the biospheric system, shown schematically in Figure 10.1, is of fundamental importance to understanding the whole question of biomass and biofuels. Before moving on to examine how integrated technologies themselves combine, it is worth remembering that the crux of this particular debate ultimately centres on issues of greenhouse gases and global warming. Increasingly the view of biomass as little more than a useful long-term carbon sink has been superseded by an understanding of the tremendous potential resource it represents as a renewable energy. Able to substitute for fossil fuels, bioenergy simply releases the carbon it took up during its own growth. Thus, only 'modern' carbon is returned, avoiding any unwanted additional atmospheric contributions of ancient carbon dioxide.


Logs in moist soil (no deeper than necessary to keep them upright) and shade. Daily and thorough watering of the trunks is mandatory. Once they are rooted, they are ready for Zone 9 or 10 garden sites. Elsewhere they need winter protection, which can be provided by an insulated wrap. An easy option, when they are juveniles, is to cultivate them in pots. These can be carted for the winter into a cool greenhouse or sheltered garden location until such time as the tree and con

Harts tongue ferns

Culture and comments Hart's tongue selections are almost infinite, but whatever choice makes it to the garden should be cultivated, if possible, in basic soil, with a certain amount of lime enrichment and that magic ingredient, good drainage. My plants are prospering, with a minimum amount of coddling, as sentinels along the walled perimeters of a concrete foundation. I used to give them a cocktail of eggshells and water, but have not done so for quite some time. They do not appear to miss it. The bad news, at least in the Pacific Northwest, is that they do attract strawberry root weevils (black vine weevils) both as grubs and man-eating adults. Their nocturnal chewing begets frond edges that are severely notched. Try carefully timed early spring applications of beneficial nematodes as a control. Indoors, with their succulent fronds, they are also magnets for aphids, which in turn transmit viruses in greenhouses and propagation sites. These attacks are easy to manage with a method of...


Quercifilix zeylanica (from Ceylon) is a chubby ground-hugging evergreen species suitable for indoor pot culture or, with its creeping rhizomes, as flooring in the conservatory. The 6-in. (15-cm) sterile blades are three-parted. The extended oak-shaped undivided but lobed terminal pinnae is flanked like a dagger with a lower pair of outward-pointing matching pinnae. Fertile fronds are upright and slender, usually looking wilted. This species is appropriate outdoors in Zones 9 and 10 or in greenhouses and not overly humid terrariums elsewhere.

Shorter Notes

Adiantum Tenerum Farleyense

Like A. raddianum, it shares a preference for humid sites in homes, greenhouses, and conservatories, as well as a propensity to produce exciting and exotic deviations from the type. Most of the commonly available cultivars (including offerings from the local supermarket to elite collector's nurseries) are derived from one or the other of these species. The differences between them are botanically slight, with one being that the color of the rachis or subrachis does not extend into the veins on the A. tenerum foliage whereas it does in A. raddianum and A. capillus-veneris. The differences between their desired cultivation requirements are none good indirect light, humidity but no misting of foliage, protection from drafts especially from forced air heat, uniformly moist but not wet soil, and a pot proportionately sized to contain the root ball without excess surrounding soil. 'Farleyense' (after Farley Hill) was discovered in the wild in Barbados in 1865. It caused an immediate stir...

Louisiana irises

As discussed in Chapter 1, a main focus for my group and associated colleagues has been the estimation of hybrid and parental fitness in various organisms in both experimental and natural habitats (e.g. Shoemaker et al. 1996 Williams et al. 1999 Promislow et al. 2001). In particular, we have drawn attention to the fact that hybrid genotypes can display a range of fitness estimates, sometimes due to environmental setting. The majority of the data used to illustrate this conclusion have come from studies of the Louisiana iris species I. fulva, I. hexagona, and I. brevicaulis. The studies have included experimental manipulations in both greenhouse and natural settings as well as from natural hybrid zones. Each of the studies has supported the hypothesis that hybrids vary in fitness and thus vary in the likelihood of their contributing to long-term evolutionary effects. A series of studies, both greenhouse- and field-based analyses, allow additional inferences of relative hybrid fitness...

Blechnum wattsii

Zones 8 (with caution and serious protection) and 9, or greenhouse. Dimorphic. culture and comments Young fronds are lightly frosted with a rosy patina, contrasting in a comely fashion with the darker foliage of older growth. Although the species comes readily from spores, it tends to resent transplanting and will collapse unexpectedly with a change in scenery. The preferred planting site is in shaded, close humid confines with humusy soil and a consistent supply of moisture at the plant's root zone. A greenhouse setting serves nicely.


Belvisia spicata growing from its mount on a shingle. To the left is a watchful little Ifugao tribal territorial marker (a hogang) carved from a tree fern trunk. The single fern frond at the upper right belongs to a small, tropical montane form of Nephrolepis cordifolia that arrived as a stowaway, and the fern at the lower right is Christella dentata, which sails around the tropical-subtropical world as spores and settles into open soil or greenhouse cranny as graceful greenery anywhere you might want it, a weed where not welcome. Photo by George Schenk.

Pyrrosia polydactyla

Culture and comments Truly drought tolerant, this species is a novel addition to fern displays where it is a collector's prize. it must be sheltered from severe cold. in my Zone 8 garden i find it reasonable to maintain it in a decorative pot which can be offered a retreat in the safety of my unheated greenhouse during the stressful winter months. Lovers of the curious in Zones 9 and 10 can certainly cultivate this species without concern for the uncertainties of weather. it will, however, curl up with displeasure when severely underwatered but like its fellow pyrrosias, returns to life, with vigor, when rehydrated. in Zone 8, the spores do not ripen in fall, but drop like yellow dust in late winter or early spring. They are slow to germinate, but they will, and should be sown as soon as practicable after ripening. It will be many months that can easily extend into a two-year period of incubation before there will be a presentable plant to grace a 4-in. (10-cm) pot. Give it lots of...


Pyrrosias, with their unfernlike appearances, come to our temperate gardens, our contrasting subtropical comforts, and the luxury of greenhouses as felt ferns. The common name describes the coating of hairy silver stars that decorate the unfurling fronds. These will mature to a soft, felt-like, rusty blanket that persists on the fronds' undersides and protects the indusia-free developing spores.

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