Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Continue reading...

Mushroom Growing 4 You Overview


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Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Mushrooms are highly perishable and have short shelf life ranging from few hours to days depending upon the species and the storage environment. Weight loss, blackening, veil-opening, and microbial spoilage are the common undesirable postharvest changes besides many physiological and biochemical changes (Bano et al. 1997 Rai and Saxena 1989a Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms require utmost postharvest care like proper handling, packaging, precooling, cool-chain transport, and storage till consumed. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere packaging (CAP), and modified humidity packaging (MHP) of the button mushroom have been described by Anantheshwaran and Ghosh (1997). Individual Quick Frozen (IQF) mushrooms are gaining popularity with other frozen vegetables in the super markets. Postharvest technology of mushrooms has been dealt in detail by many authors (Bano et al. 1997 Lal Kaushal and Sharma 1995 Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms are delicate, contain 90 water,...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Paddy Straw Mushroom Diseases

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share was 4.6 in 1986. Nevertheless, its significance lies in East Asian countries where staple food is rice and paddy straw can be utilized for growing this mushroom mostly for self-consumption or trade in the domestic market. Commonly cultivated species are V. volvacea and V. bombycina. There are two commercial substrates for growing this mushroom traditional paddy straw bundles made into beds and the other involves the use of cotton waste compost after a short period of fermentation. The latter has...

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Straw Preparation Pleurotus

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jack. ex.Fr.) Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide range of temperature (5 C to 30 C) and on almost all the lignocellulosic wastes P. sajor-caju, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. flabellatus are most popular commercial species. It is a primary rot fungi and can degrade moistened substrates directly and does not require precomposted substrates like secondary rot fungus, e.g., A. bisporus. Ease with which oyster mushrooms can be grown has manifested itself in the production statistics where the production of oyster mushroom registered 442 increase...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

Auricularia Spp China

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore throat, anemia and hypocholesterolemic effect (Quimio et al. 1990 Royse 1997). Out of about 10 recognized species of Auricularia two main commercially cultivated species are A. auricula and A. polytricha, the former is thin and light coloured while the latter is the thicker, longer, hairy, and darker. A. fuscosuccinea is also produced on a limited scale. Thailand and Taiwan are the main producers of this mushroom. Like shiitake (L. edodes), Auricularia are also produced on natural logs as well as...

TABLE 2001 Mushrooms Symptoms Toxicity and Treatment

Mushroom toxicity is divided into early toxicity (within 1 h after ingestion) and delayed toxicity (6 h to 20 days). In general, if toxicity begins within 2 h of ingestion of a mushroom, the clinical course will most likely be benign. If symptoms begin 6 h or later after ingestion, however, in general the clinical course will be more serious and potentially fatal. Nearly all fatalities in the United States occur from the ingestion of the Amanita species (Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Amanita verna). Mushroom poisoning occurs among four main groups of individuals young children who ingest mushrooms inadvertently, wild-mushroom foragers, individuals attempting suicide or homicide, and individuals looking for a hallucinatory high. Identification of the mushroom ingested may be difficult and time consuming. In all cases, treatment should be directed by a patient's symptoms rather than by attempts at mushroom identification. Very often, foragers will mix different species of...

Mushrooms Cultivation Description

The golden rule for testing edible mushrooms is never to experiment with fungi that you have not identified with certainty as harmless. It is only fair to point out that there are many fungi that are both edible and excellent, and in many countries they have formed part of the human diet for centuries (1,2). They are highly valued as a food source worldwide, and more than 30 species are sold commercially. Edible mushrooms contain more protein than any vegetable and are rich in vitamin B (3). The most delicious mushrooms include Boletus edulis, Clitopilus prunulus, Macrolepiota procera, Cantharellus cibarius, and Tricho-loma matsutake. All edible fungi should be picked when young and fresh and cooked as soon as possible. The commercially grown products are much safer because growers have been aware over the years of the problems that exist. Also, the strains marketed today are those with a long history of reliability as edible species (3,4). The observation that certain edible...

Production Technology Of Edible Fungi

Production of edible fungi or mushrooms involves many steps, mainly the following (a) Raising and maintenance of mushroom culture, (b) Seed or spawn preparation, (c) Substrate preparation, (d) Growing or cropping, and (e) Postharvest handling While step (a) and (b) are more or less common and similar for most of the mushrooms, it is the substrate preparation, crop raising, and post harvest technology which vary with the type of mushroom. In this article after brief treatment of the step (a) and (b), the cultivation technology of the so-called five leaders mentioned earlier will be briefly described and reviewed. The successive steps of production of mushrooms are depicted in Figure 1.

Flavor and Aroma of Shiitake Mushrooms

Ribonucleotides have been shown to enhance the flavor of foods. As with L-glutamate (MSG), 5'-guanylate and 5'-inosinate are flavor potentiators, which are the compounds that amplify the effects of other flavor agents. While vegetables are generally low in 5'-nucleotides, ranging 1 to 10 mol per 100 g fresh weight, mushrooms contain large amounts of these nucleotides. Common mushroom (Agaricus) contains about 50 mol and fresh Shiitake mushroom from 182 to 235 mol of 5'-nucleotides per 100 g fresh weight. Its content in the extract of dried Shiitake mushrooms is twice that in the extract from fresh ones. The process of drying not only makes it possible to preserve Shiitake for a long time but also enhances the flavor with a unique taste. Guanylic acid has been identified as the main constituent of the particular good taste of Shiitake extract. An extract containing 1-2 mg of guanylic acid can be obtained from 1 g of dried Shiitake, but a little free guanylic acid can be detected in...

Amanita Mushrooms Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria Panther Mushroom Amanita pantherina

Amanitas are a family of large, beautiful mushrooms that grow in many parts of the world. Some of them are deadly, the most poisonous of all wild mushrooms. Some are edible and delicious. Two are neither deadly nor edible as food but are used as psychoactive drugs. Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric, is a big mushroom with white dots on a red or orange cap. Agaric is an old word for mushroom the name fly comes from an old practice of chopping this mushroom into a saucer of milk to attract and kill flies.) The fly agaric is often pictured in illustrations of fairy tales and cannot be mistaken for any other mushroom. Fly agarics growing in the eastern United States are yellow and not usually psychoactive. Those in the western states are red or orange their pharmacological power correlates with cap color, the reddest mushrooms being strongest. Amanita muscaria was the traditional intoxicant of a number of primitive tribes of Siberia people who did not have access to other drugs but did...

Cultivation of the Common White Mushroom

Primitive Grew Grain

The methods used for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus are essentially similar to those pioneered by French horticulturists (9), but the old practices have been gradually refined and modified to the point where mushroom production is a closely controlled and scientific process. Mushroom spawn for each cultivation was simply transferred to an existing mushroom bed. A problem with this straightforward approach was the tendency for the spawn to gradually lose its vigor with repeated transfers from one bed to the next. Other improvements in the process have mainly concerned the development of specialized mushroom houses in which ventilation, temperature, and humidity can be carefully controlled to provide the best conditions for fruiting. In fairly deep caves the temperature remains remarkably stable, and for certain stages of mushroom development this advantage is obvious. Specially built mushroom houses are, however, more efficient, especially when it comes to preparing the mushroom...

World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six million tonnes in 1997, and five mushrooms, namely A. bisporus, Pleurotus spp., V. volvacea, L. edodes and Auricularia spp., the so-called leaders, accounted for 82 per cent of the total mushroom production (Table 1). It is clear that the button mushroom (A. bisporus) is still the leader contributing 31.8 to the total mushroom production but its share that was 56.2 in 1986 has decreased over the years. China is the biggest producer of Lentinula, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Volvariella, Flammulina, and...

Cultivation of Other Mushrooms

In addition to the aforementioned species, certain other fungi have been or still are subject to some form of primitive cultivation. The method used to grow cultivated paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) is similar to that used for the common white mushroom (17-21). Both methods are based on the preparation of special beds and the introduction of mushroom spawn, but the paddy straw mushroom is mainly cultivated on a small scale using traditional, much less scientifically refined methods. The jelly fungus (Auricularia polytricha) is quite popular in the Far East and is produced in large quantities in China. A proportion of this crop is grown on logs or polypropylene bags set up with the specific intention of encouraging the fungus. A similarly haphazard process has been used to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom. Several other fungi have been grown deliberately on a small or experimental scale. These include Pho-liota nameko, Pleurotus eryngii (Fig. 3),...

Cultivation of the Shiitake Mushroom

The shiitake grows naturally on logs of deciduous trees, in particular, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, and oak. Cultivation is therefore carried out on specially cut large branches from suitable trees, more substantial logs being in demand for construction purposes. Today a more scientific system is used (16). The logs are soaked in water and pounded to break the bark, or holes are made with a broad drill or a specially designed hammer. The logs are then inoculated with a spore emulsion prepared from mature fruiting bodies. Alternatively, a spawn consisting of mycelium grown on wood chips or sawdust is introduced into the holes. Then the infected logs are placed in a carefully selected site in Figure 4. New developed and cultivated mushroom Tricholoma cystidiosus. Figure 5. Mushroom primordium of fruiting body, Fistulina hep tica, of mycelia growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Figure 5. Mushroom primordium of fruiting body, Fistulina hep tica, of mycelia growing on potato...

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients not encountered or deficient in food substances of plant and animal origin. Besides the attributes understood in the terms of conventional nutrition, unique chemical composition of mushrooms makes Nutritional value of mushrooms has been reviewed by many workers (Chang and Miles 1989 Crisan and Sands 1978 Rai 1995). Only salient features will be briefly but critically described here. It is a fact that there are wide variations in the nutritional values reported for the same species by different...

Button Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., popularly known as the white button mushroom, has the widest acceptability and still accounts for more than 30 of total production of all mushrooms. Limited quantities of A. bitorquis, a high temperature species, are also produced in some countries. Its cultivation technology has developed over the years from a primitive cave culture in France in the 16th century to a hightech industry in America and Europe now. Still in many parts of the world, especially in developing Asian and African countries, sizeable quantities are being produced in low-cost structures like huts under the seasonal conditions. In some parts of the Europe, seasonal growing is done with arrangement for heating during the winters. Like any such venture, the production systems differ in the infrastructure, level of technology, automation, and mechanization but the basic principles and processes remain the same. The production technology of the white button mushroom (A. bisporus) has...


Psilocybin and the related compound psilocin are hallucinogens of the indole alkylamine class, and are structurally related to LSD. Psilocybin and psilocin are believed to act as 5-HT2 agonists in a manner similar to LSD. They occur naturally in mushrooms of the Psilocybe genus, most notably P. semilanceata (liberty cap), and P. cubensis. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms grow naturally in many areas of the United States and Europe, and kits containing spores and the ingredients necessary for propagation are advertised in drug-oriented publications. Hallucinogenic mushrooms purchased on the street are often nonpsychoactive mushrooms that have been adulterated with LSD or PCP.9 Psilocybin-containing mushrooms may be dried or cooked without losing potency. Because the size of the mushrooms and the concentration of psychoactive compounds varies, there is little correlation between the number of mushrooms ingested and the hallucinogenic effects. A user may ingest as few as 5 or as many as...

Mushroom Flavors

Sugihara and Humfeld (1954) who found that mushroom flavor could be produced by Lepiota rhacodes when grown under submerged conditions. Gilbert (1960) Litchfield et al. (1963) and Le Duy et al. (1974) studied the production of mushroom flavor by Morchella crassipes. Lentinus edodes produced 1-octen-3-ol, 5'-amp, an intense mushroom flavor when the medium was supplemented with ethanol (Sugimori et al. 1971). Hamid et al. (1972) investigated the production of mushroom flavor from Trichoderma nudum under submerged conditions, while Van Eybergen and Scheffers (1972) reported its production in the mycelium of Boletus edulis. Dijkstra (1976), Pyssalo and Honkanen (1976), and Card and Avisse (1977) found that the fermentation conditions as well as media constituents play a vital role in the production yield. Mushroom flavors have also been obtained from A. oryzae (Scharpf et al. 1986), Caprinus micaceus, Merulins rufus, and Poria vaillantu (Schindler and Schmid 1982).

Mushroom Production

Mushrooms have entered the new era of food technology as a common universally accepted nutritive food. Their commercial cultivation involving SSF has rapidly spread globally, due to their innumerable applications. They are a rich source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals (2,19). Folic acid content in mushrooms has been found to be higher than in liver and spinach. In addition to their nutritive value, mushrooms also possess medicinal properties (1,2,19,20,127-129). They demonstrate antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities, due to the presence of polyacetylene compounds. Today more than 2000 species of mushrooms are known, although only about 20 are cultivated commercially. Button mushrooms, Japanese mark forest mushrooms, Chinese mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, and winter mushrooms are some of the various types of popular mushrooms being cultivated world wide. However, button mushrooms alone account for about 60 of total world production. Mushroom...


Lentinula Edodes Life Cycle

Fresh mushrooms are highly perishable and their quality declines rapidly after harvest. However, due to consumer demand for fresh produce and foreign competition with processed products, the percentage of U.S.-produced Agaricus mushrooms sold on the fresh market has increased dramatically in recent years and represents about 68 of all mushrooms grown in that country. A key factor in increasing demand and subsequent sale of fresh mushrooms is the improvement of the quality available to the consumer.102 Mushrooms, the edible species of a large group of fungi, have been consumed for several thousand years and can be divided into five groups (1) Oomycetes, (2) Zygomycetes, (3) Ascomycetes, (4) Basidiomycetes, and (5) Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti). Some mushrooms, such as truffles and morels, are Ascomycetes, while most, including species of Agaricus, Lentinula, Pleurotus, and Volvariella, are Basidiomycetes. Basidiomycete is also known as huitlacoche, which is the name the Aztecs...

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to that in the United States where 90 of total production was of the so-called specialty mushrooms and button mushroom contributed only 10 . Therefore, from the Japanese perspective button mushroom could be termed as specialty mushroom. Be that as it may, the term specialty mushrooms is now well established by usage to represent all mushrooms other than the button mushroom. Production and consumption of the specialty mushrooms are very popular in the East Asian countries namely China, Japan, Korea,...


Efb Fiber For Mushrooms Cultivation

Mushrooms are fleshy fungi, only some of which are edible. They usually have thick stems and rounded caps with radiating gills on the underside. The caps can be smooth or bumpy, honeycombed or ruffled, ranging in size from less than 1 2 inch in diameter to 12 inches and in color from snowy white to black, with a broad spectrum of colors in between. They can be soft or crunchy, and they range in flavor from bland to nutty and earthy. Scientific name Agaricus bispo Common name mushroom Cooked mushrooms are an excellent source of niacin and a good source of riboflavin

Amino Acids Peptides And Proteins

What is most remarkable is that cells can produce proteins with strikingly different properties and activities by joining the same 20 amino acids in many different combinations and sequences. From these building blocks different organisms can make such widely diverse products as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, transporters, muscle fibers, the lens protein of the eye, feathers, spider webs, rhinoceros horn, milk proteins, antibiotics, mushroom poisons, and myriad other substances having distinct biological activities (Fig. 3-1). Among these protein products, the enzymes are the most varied and specialized. Virtually all cellular reactions are catalyzed by enzymes.

Physiochemical Properties Molecular Weight

Most reports on the molecular weight of PPO are based on estimates on partially purified preparations using gel filtration or acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Therefore, a wide range of values are reported. Often crude or partially purified preparations show a multiplicity of forms, which may have resulted from association-dissociation reactions. Depending on the source of the enzyme, the molecular weights vary between 29,000 and 200,000 with subunit molecular weight from 29,000 to 67,000. Until recently, the enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces glaucescens was found to have the smallest functional unit with one copper pair per polypeptide chain of 29,000 (44). The molecular weight of mushroom PPO has been reported to be between 116,000 and 128,000 daltons (37). The enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of Mw ca 30,000, each containing one copper atom (45). Two types of polypeptide chains, heavy (Mw 43,000) and light (Mw 13,400) were reported in mushroom (46). Avocado, banana,...

Monitoring and Control of Hazards

Carcinogens in food with a carcinogenic effect in a few favorable circumstances, since such chemicals are likely to be present at low levels and induce only a small increase in tumor incidence over background levels. One such example was the identification of a carcinogenic hydrazone in the mushroom Gyromitra esculenta, as a result of an epidemiological study in Finland. Such methods have also indicated the relative importance of 'life style' factors in carcinogenesis in particular, associations have been made between lack of dietary fiber and colon cancer, between a low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and stomach cancer, and between excess dietary fat and colon and breast cancer, although the specific chemicals responsible have not been identified with any certainty.

Nutritional categories

Microorganisms can be categorised according to how they obtain their carbon and energy. As we have seen, carbon is the most abundant component of the microbial cell, and most microorganisms obtain their carbon in the form of organic molecules, derived directly or indirectly from other organisms. This mode of nutrition is the one that is familiar to us as humans (and all other animals) all the food we eat is derived as complex organic molecules from plants and other animals (and even some representatives of the microbial world such as mushrooms ). Microorganisms which obtain their carbon in

Arguments For And Against Synchrony

For synchronous oscillations to play a role in information processing, neurons must have mechanisms for discriminating between synchronous and asynchronous inputs. There have been several experiments that indicate that synchronously arriving postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) summate more effectively. Kenyon cells (KC) in the locust mushroom body have an intrinsic voltage-dependent mechanism for detecting coincident excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs).35 When two different inputs to a cell arrived less than 12 ms from each other, a spike was evoked, but when the interval between inputs was greater than 12 ms or when the active conductances other than Na+ and K+ were blocked, no spike was produced.35 In the hippocampal-slice preparation, correlated pre- and postsynaptic spikes that produced either long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) also changed how the

Serotonin and hallucinogenic activity

Experimental evidence nevertheless suggests that the behavioural effects of a number of indole alkylamine (e.g. LSD-like) and phenylalkylamine (e.g. mescaline-like) hallucinogens can be attenuated by 5-HT2A antagonists and that the potency of these classes of hallucinogens at 5-HT2A (and possibly 5-HT2c) sites correlate with their hallucinogenic potency in man. It seems unlikely however that all hallucinogens owe their activity to their potency in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors LSD and 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine for example interact with 5-HT2C sites, while phenyclidine may owe its hallucinogenic potency to an action on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and a subclass of sigma receptors. Nevertheless, the balance of evidence suggests that most ''classical'' hallucinogens such as LSD, mescaline and psilocybin act as partial agonists on 5-HT2A receptors.

TABLE 791 Vomiting and Diarrhea The Gastroenteritis Mnemonic

Learning more about the patient is as important as defining the illness. What complicating medical conditions does the patient have Is the patient diabetic If so, could the vomiting be a manifestation of diabetic ketoacidosis In a patient with a history of peripheral vascular disease, vomiting may be a sign of mesenteric ischemia. Patients with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries are at risk for intestinal obstruction due to adhesions. Knowledge of the medications to which the patient has access is also critical, since intentional and unintentional poisonings often present first with emesis. Physicians should be suspicious of drug-induced toxicity in patients taking medicines known to have gastrointestinal toxicity (e.g., lithium, digoxin, or theophylline). The social history provides clues, too. Vomiting in a person who enjoys mushroom hunting may well represent Amanita poisoning.

Hazard Identification

Epidemiological studies, in which a positive association between exposure and disease has been observed, and case reports of accidental poisonings have provided convincing evidence of the human risk of various compounds. This has been the basis for the identification of many naturally occurring toxins, including ergot alkaloids, potato alkaloids, and toxic mushrooms.

Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing

Yeasts and filamentous fungi were traditionally employed in the production of alcoholic beverages and fermented foods over centuries (Hui and Khachatourians 1995 Rajak 2000). Yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces) have been used worldwide for brewing and baking for thousands of years. Likewise, filamentous fungi have been traditionally used for preparing mold-ripened cheeses (mainly Penicillium spp.) in Europe and soybean-based fermented foods (mainly Aspergillus spp.) in the Orient. On the other hand, edible mushrooms (such as Agaricus) have been used worldwide for direct consumption since times immemorial (Hudler 1998 Pointing and Hyde 2001 Rajak 2000 Singh and Aneja 1999). With passing time, these fermentation techniques were scaled up and made more efficient with respect to engineering theories and practices. Main outcomes of the evolution of food processing and production activities, have been the introduction of interdisciplinary natural and engineering concepts, for example, better...

Commercial Bioflavors

Novel bioprocesses are now an accepted alternative source of a wide range of high-prized volatile flavors. A couple of companies advertise 100 natural compounds. Whether these were obtained by conventional physical treatments of plant (or other natural) sources, or whether they in fact originated from a bioreactor, is sometimes difficult to assess. True products of concerted bioprocesses may be di-acetyl (butter note, from starter cultures), cheese flavors, yeast products (meaty and savory notes), fatty acids and related alcohols and esters (from lipase technology or intact microorganisms), C6- and C8-alcohols and related car-bonyls (green and mushroom notes, from plant and fungal homogenates), and some specialties such as lactones, vanillin, and nootkatone from complex biosystems.

Flavouring Other Products

Similarily, blanching water, an inevitable by-product of some production processes, can be used. An example for cultivated mushrooms is described by Wu et al. 62 , who compare various drying methods. They report that thermal drum drying has the best sensorical effect. In this case, freeze drying would only be of interest if the main emphasis is on the structure of the granular material.

Hepatic and Renal Failure

Considering the importance of the liver and kidney in the maintenance of blood glucose levels hypogly-cemia is remarkably rare in both liver and kidney disease. In liver disease hypoglycemia is virtually confined to patients with acute toxic hepatic necrosis, whether due to overwhelming viral infection or specific hepatotoxins such as poisonous mushrooms, unripe akee fruit, and paracetamol in excess. Its appearance always portends an extremely poor prognosis. The association of hypoglycemia with primary cancer of the liver is comparatively common and due to overexpression and secretion of aberrant, or big IGF-II, and is not, as was once supposed, due to nonspecific destruction of hepatic tissue. Hypoglycemia is very rarely due to hepatic secondaries except from IGF-II secreting tumors.

Solidstate bioprocessing

Fermented foods have been consumed by humans all over the world for centuries. Most fermentation processes are conducted with liquid nutrient broths. Well known examples in the food industry are the production of yogurt, beer, wine, lactic acid, and many food flavors (213). However, partial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth based bioprocessing has also been used for processing food and food wastes. Here, instead of a nutrient broth, moist solid nutrients with minimal water are used as a substrate for microbial growth. This process is referred to as solid-state bioprocessing. Microbial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth on foods in solid state, for preservation of food and flavor enhancement, has been done for centuries and some of the common examples for these processes include manufacture of cheese and bread (214). Other wellknown examples are the production of microbe laced cheeses such as Roquefort, and the production of fermented sausages. In Asia, solidstate...

Clinical Features

Toxic hepatitis should be suspected if a history of ingestion or exposure to a known hepatotoxin is obtained. Signs of hepatocellular damage may be present with toxicity from agents such as acetaminophen, halothane, methyldopa, isoniazid, or phenytoin. Cholestatic changes predominate in toxicity from anabolic steroids, oral contraceptives, and chlorpromazine. Mushroom poisoning, carbon tetrachloride, and phosphorus can produce massive hepatic necrosis.

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Based upon the observations of Lambert that productive compost came from the regions of the pile having temperature between 50-60 C and adequate supply of oxygen, Sinden and Hauser (1950) developed the so-called short-method of composting mainly because it took lesser time than the long method. The concept and process was indeed a revolution in the cultivation of button mushroom. The short method of composting mainly consists of two phases outdoor-composting for 10-12 days (Phase-I) followed by pasteurization and conditioning for 6-7 days inside specialized insulated structures, called tunnels. Based upon the temperature conditions maintained inside the tunnel, Phase-II can be divided...

Chapter References

Timar L, Czeizel AE Birth weight and congenital anomalies following poisonous mushroom intoxication during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 11 861, 1977. 8. Fanatozzi R, Ledda F, Caramelli L, et al Clinical findings and follow-up evaluation of an outbreak of mushroom poisoning Survey of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Klin Wochenschr 64 38, 1986. 12. Parish RC, Doering PL Treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning A review. Vet Hum Toxicol 28 318, 1986. 13. Faulstich H, Kirshner K, Derenzini M Strongly enhanced toxicity of mushroom toxin a-amanitin by an amatoxin-specific FAB or monoclonal antibody. Toxicon 26 491, 1988. 14. Warden CR, Benjamin DR Acute renal failure associated with suspected Amanita smithiana mushroom ingestion A case series. Acad Emerg Med 5 808, 1998.

Serving Suggestions

Oysters in the shell also can be cooked in numerous ways baked, steamed, or grilled. Oysters Rockefeller, a hot hors d'oeuvre that is baked and broiled with a spinach topping, is a traditional, elegant favorite. Use shucked oysters in dressings or poultry stuffings. Oyster stew is often made with only heavy cream, oysters, and butter, but a healthier alternative can be created with evaporated milk and added vegetables, such as potatoes, pearl onions, carrots, or mushrooms.

Ketamine Ketalar Ketaject SuperK

Jonathan Ott includes Amanita muscaria and Amanita pan-therina in his Hallucinogenic Plants of North America (Berkeley, California Wingbow Press, 1976 revised edition, 1979). Descriptions of uses of Amanita muscaria will be found in Narcotic Plants of the Old World, Used in Rituals and Everyday Life An Anthology of Texts from Ancient Times to the Present, edited by Hedwig Schleiffcr (Monticello, New York Lubrecht & Cramer, 1979). In Soma Divine Mushroom of Immortality (New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972), R. Gordon Wasson presents his theory that Amanita muscaria was used as a sacramental intoxicant in ancient India.

Freezing and Freeze Drying

Only a small portion of common (Agaricus) mushrooms produced are frozen or freeze-dried, and a large part of the frozen mushrooms are sold to reprocessors, such as freeze-dryers, or used in specialized frozen food products. Mushrooms contain a highly potent polyphenoloxidase. It is this enzyme which causes the undesirable discoloration that appears in bruised or cut mushrooms. During the washing operation, soluble oxidized phenolic compounds resulting from the enzymatic action are washed off, and in some cases the washing water may turn a distinct red. Blanching adequate to destroy the enzyme also produces an undesirable gray color. Therefore, mushrooms for freezing are usually given a short blanching in hot water, primarily to help reduce microbial contamination rather than for enzyme inactivation. It is necessary to follow such a blanching immediately with a cold-water quench. A short-time dip in sodium bisulfite solution containing 200 ppm S02 or in 1 salt and 0.09 sodium bisulfite...

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

The biological diversity contained within woodland ecosystems may be exploited for practical and aesthetic gain. Traditional methods of exploitation have involved collection or cultivation of fungi for food, e.g., truffle fungi, Lentinula edodes (Shii-take), and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) as well as many other edible woodland fungi. Wood colonized by certain fungal species may be employed to generate valuable timber products. For example, Brown oak veneer timber (pourriture rouge dur) is produced by Fistulina hepatica colonizing heartwood, Chlorosplenium aeruginascens is used in the commercial production of Tunbridge ware, and wood containing interaction zone lines is turned to produce decorative artifacts. Novel methods of exploitation may involve the application of fungal decay systems to convert a range of renewable lignocellulosics into protein, fermentable sugars, and other products, or to bioremediate certain recalcitrant pollutants. Appreciation and understanding of...

Fungal Diversity Environmental Change And Conservation

Despite these limitations evidence accrues, particularly from Europe and more recently the United States, suggesting that fungal biodiversity is in decline. The likely causes of decline are due to habitat loss and or pollution. Harvesting of wild edible mushrooms is believed to have little detrimental effect on fungi, except where collection has involved damaging or exhausting the mycelium, or trampling or raking the soil (Arnolds 1995). Nevertheless, the environmental impact of large-scale commercial harvesting remains a contentious issue. Fungal habitat may be lost, with implicit reduction of fungal species diversity, either by deforestation, or because of commercial forestry management practices, such as the conversion to less-mixed or monoculture plantations, stand felling of a particular age, and the removal of course woody debris (Fridman and Walheim 2000 H0iland and Bendiksen 1996 Lindblad 1998 Norden and Paltto 2001 Ohlson et al. 1997 Straatsma et al. 2001). Red-List...

Mechanisms Of Wounding

Both missile and tissue characteristics determine the nature of the wound. Missile characteristics are partly inherent (mass, shape, and construction) and are partly conferred by the weapon (longitudinal and rotational velocity). Tissue characteristics (elasticity, density, and anatomic relationships) also strongly affect the nature of the wound. The severity of a bullet wound is influenced by the bullet's orientation during its flight through tissue and by whether the bullet fragments 9 deform (into the typical mushroom shape of expanding hollow-point or soft-point bullets).

Psychological interactions

Stevenson et al. (1995, 1998) tried to elucidate the origin of these taste-odour associations. They repeatedly paired novel odours such as lychee and water chestnut with either sucrose or citric acid in solution. These two odours were rated as low in 'sweetness or sourness odour' when sniffed before the pairing experiment with the sweet or sour tastes. After an exposure phase, these novel odours were rated significantly higher in 'sweetness or sourness odour' according to the taste with which they were paired. They concluded that these associative processes are some examples of learned synesthaesia (Stevenson et al. 1998). On a hedonic point of view, no significant change in rating or liking was noted when increases in the perceived sweetness or sourness of the novel odours were observed. Stevenson (2001 a,b) showed that qualities of odours were influenced by pairing with other odours. For example, when mushroom odour is repeatedly paired with cherry odour, an enhancement of cherry...

Emerging Foodborne Diseases

FDA guidance is delineated in Compliance Policy Guide 585.500, Mushrooms, Canned or Dried (Freeze Dried or Dehydrated) Adulteration Involving Maggots, Mites, Decomposition. These levels are based on the assumption that the contaminants are harmless and unavoidable. The true level of safety to allergenic mites is unknown (25).

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

The major leisure activities for men and women include watching television, visiting friends, receiving guests in the home, listening to music, reading, and gardening. Other leisure activities include sports, handicrafts, table games (cards, chess, checkers, dominoes), and computer games. Men read newspapers and watch more television than women, who spend more leisure time with children. Other popular leisure activities for women include embroidery and sewing. Men often enjoy fishing and similar activities. Both men and women like to gather mushrooms and berries. Few people are members of special interest clubs and organizations only 7.8 of the population (Sydorenko, 2000). Many in Ukraine enjoy attending concerts and theatrical performances.

Background and History Early Accounts of Drug

Lack of botanical and pharmacological expertise characterizes many of the early explorers' descriptions of non-Western people using unfamiliar plants. Europeans first thought the tomato poisonous because of its apparent taxonomic relationship to poison ivy. Prejudice against the people being described is evident in the conquistadores' encounters with the Aztecs' consumption of peyote and psilocybin and the Incas' consumption of coca (Carter & Mamani, 1986 Furst, 1995). European men of the 16th century gave disparaging and lurid accounts of these practices, setting the stage for centuries of prejudice against those who continued them. Consumption of tobacco as observed by Columbus and his crewmen, on the other hand, contributed to the eventual establishment of a highly lucrative trade good.

Tranquilizer Rescinnamine

Amatoxins (a-, -, - -amanitins, amanin, amanullin) toxic mushrooms Death Cup CAmanita phalloides, A. verna, A, virosa) Liver and kidney damage (man) Muscular and respiratory paralysis (vertebrates and invertebrates) LD100 (as oxalate, mouse, subcutaneous) 310 mg kg Muscaridine mushroom fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) Uterine stimulation (rabbit, guinea pig) Hashish or alcohol-like intoxication (man) Muscarine mushroom fly agaric (Amanita muscaria and other mushrooms) Uterine stimulation (rabbit, guinea pig) Hemolysis (mammals) ataxia, respiratory distress, coma (mouse) minimum LD (mouse, intraperitoneal) 0.25 mg g Phallotoxins (phalloidin, phalloin, phallisin, phallicidin) toxic mushrooms Death Cup, (Amanita phalloides, A verna, A virosa) Liver and kidney damage (man) Vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, coma, and death (man) LD (man, oral) 3 mg kg -Phenylethylamine Mushrooms, bitter almonds Coniine is an extremely toxic alkaloid that induces paralysis of the motor nerve endings and is...

Microorganisms as food

As we have seen in the previous section, a number of microorganisms are involved in the production of food products. Others, however, are foodstuffs Perhaps the most obvious of these are mushrooms, the stalked fruiting bodies of certain species of basidiomycete (see Chapter 8), notably Agaricus bisporus. These are grown in the dark at favourable temperatures, in order to stimulate the production of fruiting bodies. Another fungus, Fusarium forms the basis of QuornTM, a processed mycoprotein that has been used as a meat substitute for some years in the UK. Whereas mushrooms are grown as agricultural products, QuornTM must be produced under highly regulated sterile conditions. Other microbial food sources include certain algae (seaweed), which form an important part of the diet in some parts of the world, and bacteria and yeast grown in bulk as single-cell protein (SCP) for use as a protein-rich animal food supplement. The cyanobacterium Spirulina has been collected from dried-up ponds...

Characterizing Aromas In Offflavors

Lipid-derived volatile compounds play an important role in many food flavors. These compounds contribute to the characteristic and desired note of a food but can also cause off-flavors depending on their concentrations compared to other sensorially relevant odorants. For example, the ''cardboard'' off-flavor of butter oil is primarily related to (E )-2-nonenal, which is formed by the autoxidation of palmitoleic acid (89). Carbonyl compounds formed by lipid peroxidation were identified in cooked beef, which developed a warmed-over flavor from reheating after 2-day refrigerated storage (68). Warmed-over flavor was mainly caused by formation of 4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (''metallic'') and hexanal (''green'') notes, which were not present in freshly cooked beef. Similarly, for boiled chicken, green cardboard-like metallic off-odors were formed during refrigerated storage and reheating, primarily from a 7-fold increase in hexanal (66). These and other unsaturated carbonyl compounds,...

Fungal and Plant Species Richness

Unlike AM fungi, the formation of EM involves a greater diversity of fungal species (> 5400 species), exhibiting varying degrees of host specificity (Molina et al. 1992). For example, the EM fungal genera, Hydnangium, is found only on Eucalyptus and Suillis and Rhizopogon are restricted to Pinaceae, while Amanita and Laccaria associate with most EM hosts (Molina et al. 1992). Further, EM fungal diversity can be high in areas where plant community diversity is low. Early studies by Trappe (1977) estimated 2000 species of EM associated with Douglas Fir alone. In the Jarrah forest of southwestern Australia dominated by Eucalyptus marginate and E. calophylla, 90 species of EM fungi were found (Hilton et al. 1989). Over 50 species of EM fungi were identified in a Quercus agrifolia stand near Temecula in southern California. These included truffle fungi in the genera Hydnotryposis, Hydnotrya, and Tuber, as well as epigeous mushrooms such as Amanita, Boletus, Cortinarius, Laccaria, and...

Utilization Of Fruit And Vegetable Processing Wastes Via Solidstate Fermentation

Mushrooms Mushroom production is one of the few large-scale commercial applications of microbial technology profitable for bioconversion of cellulosic waste materials to valuable foods (11). Apple pomace was found to be a good substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Various oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus species) were growing very well on apple pomace with a biological efficiency ranging between 30 and 40 (71). The biological efficiency was a measure ment of the conversion rate, a ratio of the fruit body yield to the weight of the cultivation medium. In another experiment, a mixture of apple pomace and sawdust was used as a substrate for production of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on synthetic logs (72). Apple pomace is complex and has readily usable carbohydrates that complement the nutritional properties of sawdust. As a result, the mushroom mycelia grew faster and more densely in logs containing apple pomace than in sawdust alone (73).

TABLE 854 Complication Seen with Transabdominal Feeding Tubes

Foley Gastrostomy Tube Bolster

Replaced, it will probably have a bolster (also called a mushroom) holding the tube in place ( Fig 8.5.-1). This will prevent the tube from being removed. The tube must FIG. 85-1. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube with a mushroom bolster in place. (Adapted from Gauderer MWL, Ponsky JL A simplified technique for constructing a tube feeding gastrostomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 152 83, 1981, with permission.)

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

The notion that potentially toxic substances can be commonly found in conventional foods is difficult for the layperson and some well-educated people to accept. On an emotional level, food is regarded as that which sustains life, should be pure, unadulterated, and sometimes has a spiritual aura. Thus, many individuals are astonished to find that plants and some animals that are sources of food can produce an array of chemicals that can be harmful. There are some notable examples. A well-acknowledged naturally occurring toxicant is the toxin produced by the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, which is popular in Japanese cuisine. Another example is the poisonous mushroom Amanita muscaria. The production of toxicants is more common than one might first realize. Plants produce both primary and secondary metabolic products. In the plant kingdom, many phytochemicals are produced as secondary metabolites, e.g., metabolic by-products of metabolism, excretion, and elimination. Through evolution, some...

Poultry Manure Treatment And Utilization

A small portion of the litter and straw, hay, or crop residue may be used as a carbon source for animal mortality composting, with the resulting compost used as fertilizer. In some parts of the United States, broiler litter or dried layer manure is used in the microbial mixture to supply nutrients for Agaricus mushrooms. 4

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized with alcohol, and is placed on a spiral wire loop kept in sterile petriplate covered with a beaker. Mushroom sheds spores on petriplates from which a loopful of spores is transferred on suitable growth medium, generally malt extract agar in case of A. bisporus. Spores after germination give rise to multispore culture. In case of tissue culture, a piece from a suitable place of fruitbody is cut and after surface-sterilization, the piece is transferred onto sterile growth medium slants. Different...

Heat treatment blanching and canning

Heat treatments are responsible for irreversible denaturation of cellular tissue in fruits or vegetables causing softening and juice loss. Vacuum infusion technology was consequently used before heat treatment such as blanching, pasteurising and canning with an aim of limiting thermal damages in the product. It is of particular interest to note the treatment of button mushrooms (McArdle et al., 1974 Gormley and Walshe, 1986 Demeaux et al., 1988), strawberries (Main et al., 1986), apricots (French et al., 1989) and turnips (Moreira et al., 1994). McArdle et al. (1974) showed that vacuum impregnation of mushroom with only water before blanching and canning improved the weight yield in the final product. The water retention resulting in this case could be also improved thanks to the preliminary infusion of a hydrocolloid like xanthan gum (Gormley and Walshe, 1986). Xanthan impregnation tended to decrease the shrinkage of mushroom during the blanching canning cycle and thus to reduce the...

Effects On Invertebrate Behaviour

Decomposed by them and extractives from such wood are often attractive to termites, and VOCs can stimulate termites to eat more sound wood and build more galleries. White-rot fungi and white-rotted wood are often unattractive and even toxic to termites, though P. ostreatus was attractive. White-rot fungal mycelia are, however, attractive to other arthropods. For example, fungus gnats (Bradysia Sciaridae) are highly attracted to and oviposit in interaction zones of mating incompatible mycelia of Stereum spp. and Phlebia spp. (Boddy et al., 1983 Figure 2a). Collembola are also attracted to and preferentially graze in interaction zones between mycelia growing from woody resources into soil (Figure 2b). These regions are presumably more palatable and leak nutrients, and VOCs are upregulated (Hynes et al., 2007). Sciarids and phorids (Diptera) are attracted to the mycelium and compost of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus species Grove and Blight, 1983 Tibbles et al., 2005). There were,...

Application Of Sulfites In The Food Industry

Sulfites can effectively prevent or minimize nonenzymatic browning by forming stable hydroxysulfonates with car-bonyls and reducing sugars as mentioned in the previous section. In this respect, sulfites are widely used in wine making and in dehydrated fruits and vegetables to prevent the discoloration of the finished products (3,7,8). Sulfites can also inhibit some oxidative enzymes such as polyphen-oloxidase, ascorbate oxidase, lipogenase, and peroxidase (6) and therefore can retard the enzymatic browning resulting from polyphenoloxidase. In addition, sulfites can form stable hydroxysulfonates with browning intermediates such as quinones, and prevent further reaction to form browning pigment (6). Thus, sulfites are commonly used in fresh vegetables for salad bars (this application has been banned by USFDA), peeled and sliced potatoes, apple dice and other fruits used in bakery products, fresh mushroom for processing, and table grapes and fresh shrimp, where enzymatic browning...

Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation has been used long before the underlying microbiological or biochemical processes involved were understood. The use of naturally occurring microorganisms in the preparation of foods such as bread and cheese, or directly as food such as mushrooms, dates back many centuries, and these are some examples of traditional solid-state fermentation systems (4). As early as 2600 b.c., Egyptians were making bread by methods essentially similar to those of today (4). In Asia, cheese had been prepared as food for several hundred years before the birth of Christ (4). The preparation of koji for soy sauce and miso production in Japan and Southeast Asia goes back as far as 1000 years ago and probably 3000 years ago in China (4,5). Preservation of fish, meat, and other animal products by solid-state fermentation goes back about 2500 years (4). Vinegar was produced by solid-state fermentation from fruit pomace in the eighteenth century (5). The production of gallic acid is...

Quality Control Assurance Applications

A method to characterize the color of fruits and vegetables at different ripening states, describe color changes during storage of mushrooms, distinguish varieties by shape, and recognize shape defects was developed calculating the average red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of the pixels belonging to each product (18). Utilizing hue, saturation, and intensity, an (HSI) MVS was trained to distinguish between good and greened potatoes and yellow and green apples (19). The CMVS used multivariate discriminate techniques to hue histograms of representing features and increased accuracy by reducing the number of hue bins by selecting significant features or summing groups of hue bins. X-ray technology has been developed to detect motals, glass, minerals, stone, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), dense rubber, and other materials within a package or in a conveyor belt (20). The system consists of an X-ray generator, a detector, and a processor. Differences in density are detected,...

Mutualistic Interactions

Bacteria that detoxify fungal cell membrane disrupting compounds produced by bacterial pathogens of fruit bodies (see above) may also be considered as mutualists of basidiomycetes. Tsukamoto et al. (2002) isolated several tolaasin-detoxifying strains from wild Agaricales. Perhaps the presence of tolaasin-detoxifying strains on wild mushrooms explains why P. tolaasii is much more frequently isolated from cultivated mushrooms than from wild ones (Bessette, 1984). More detailed investigations are needed to understand the nutritional requirements of the antagonists of P. tolaasii. If they are preferentially selected by the fungus, for example via a resistance to antibacterial compounds and are growing on fungal exudates, this would be true mutualism. Fruit body formation of several edible mushrooms is dependent on the presence of certain bacteria (Rainey et al., 1990 Cho et al., 2003). Evidence has been presented that this is due to the removal of fungal autoinhibitors by bacteria (Noble...

Compounds Responsible For Modifying Seafood Flavors And Tastes

Although MSG contributes the basic taste sensation of umami to a food, the 5'-nucleotides may play just as important a role. Some of the nucleotides have the umami flavor, but their ability to potentiate this flavor may be more important. The 5'-nucleotides are naturally present in many foodstuffs and have probably been used for their flavor-enhancing abilities long before their role was understood. For example, Table 3 lists some values for the nucleotides in common foods. It can be seen from this data that the use of meat and poultry broths or soups prepared with shiitake mushrooms would have a potentiating effect, that is, one similar to that of the commercially produced Ribotide (Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.), if used with

Chemical Compounds Responsible For Flavors Found In Seafoods

Josephson et al. (28-30) found a variety of odorous compounds (Table 1), but three families of compounds were major contributors to the characterization of Lake Michigan whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) C6 aldehydes and alcohols contributed green and plantlike aromas (eg, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol), C9 aldehydes and alcohols contributed cucumber and melon aromas (eg, 2-nonenal, 2,6-nonadienal,6-nonen-l-ol, and 3,6-nonadien-l-ol), and the C8 ketones and alcohols provided a characteristic mushroom aroma (eg, l-octen-3-one, l,5-octadien-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, l,5-octadien-3-ol, 2-octen-l-ol, and 2,5-octadien-l-ol). In this work, they found that increasing amounts of corresponding alcohols (l,5-octadien-3-ol and 3,6-nonadien-l-ol) and a concomitant decrease in carbonyls (1,5-octadien-3-one and 3,6-nonadienal) was associated with the change in aroma from that of very fresh whitefish to aromas that were characterized as suppressed, flat, and sweet melonlike. Josephson et al. (27) found that...

Occupation and smoking

At higher risk of occupational asthma. More than 50 agents have been implicated. Such diseases among workers in food industries are sometimes due to the food proteins themselves, but in other cases the specific IgE is directed against microorganisms or insects involved in food production or storage. Workers at risk include those in contact with wheat and rye flour, green coffee beans and snow crab. Workers who handle mushrooms and celery can be sensitised either to the food proteins or to micro-organisms associated with these vegetables.14

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular culinary and other uses of the mushrooms (see this volume, chapter by Rai). Aspergillus nidulans niger oryzae Mucor hiemalus miehei pusillus Penicillium album camemberti caseicolum roquefortii Rhizopus arrhizus cohnii delemar niveus oligosporus oryzae Edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus Agaricus campus Lentinus edodes Pholiota nameke Pleurotus ostreatus Volvariella volvacea

Conservation Of Culture

Most mushroom growers have to rely entirely on commercial spawn producers and the spawn plants of larger mushroom farms to provide reliable products. Successful mushroom production depends on the proper maintenance of pure culture and spawn that is capable of producing fruiting bodies of high productivity, excellent flavor, texture, color, and resistance to pests, disease, or both (5). There is no satisfactory way to check and evaluate the qualities of spawn by any rapid on-the-spot examination. A method of preserving selected strains that have been thoroughly tested and proved desirable is of primary importance. Stock cultures are often maintained in an actively growing state under optimum laboratory conditions on a suitable solid substrate, using a system of periodic transfers at reasonable intervals of time. Alternatively, spawn cultures are reestablished under field cultivation by using single or mass basidiospore isolation or tissue culture techniques from freshly harvested...

Naturally Occurring Toxicants

Naturally occurring toxicants are products of the metabolic processes of animals, plants, and microorganisms from which the food products and nutrients are derived. Humans may be exposed to these naturally occurring toxicants through direct consumption of the foods or through secondary exposure from the edible by-products of food-producing animals. Most toxicants of animal origin come from fish and shellfish, including saxitoxin (paralytic shellfish poisoning), tetrodotoxin (puffer fish poisoning), cigua-toxin (ciguatera poisoning), and histamine (scombroid poisoning). The toxins produced by fungus on infected grains and other foods are also considered naturally occurring toxicants. They include aflatoxins, ergot toxins, ochra-toxin, zearalenone, and the trichothecene toxins. Many of these mycotoxins (toxins produced by fungal cultures) are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Many mushrooms also produce toxins with varying types of effects. See references 9 and 10 for further...

Malic Acid

L-Malic acid is the isomeric form that is found in nature. It is the predominant acid in substantial quantity in apples and cherries and in lesser quantities in prunes, watermelon, squash, quince, plums, and mushrooms. Like citric acid, L-malic acid plays an essential part in carbohydrate metabolism in man and other animals.

Fumaric Acid

Fumaric acid is also a naturally occurring, organic, general purpose food acid. Although not found ubiquitously or in the concentrations of citric acid, fumaric nevertheless is found in all mammals as well as rice, sugar cane, wine, plant leaves, bean spouts, and edible mushrooms.


In addition to simple Mendelian genetics (Bonde et al. 1988 Burdon et al. 1986 Hellman and Christ 1991 Shattock et al. 1986a Spielman et al. 1990) and linkage analysis (May and Royse 1982b), isozymes can be used to distinguish hybrid from nonhybrid progeny in both intra- (May and Royse 1982a Shattock et al. 1986b) and inter-specific crosses (Goodwin and Fry 1994), and to infer the ploidy level of vegetative hyphae (Goodwin et al. 1994 Shattock et al. 1986b). Dimeric enzymes are ideal for this kind of analysis (Figure 3). Isozymes also can be used to analyze parasexual genetics in fungi. In addition to laboratory genetics, isozyme analysis implicated somatic hybridization as the probable origin of a new forma specialis of cereal rust in Australia (Burdon et al. 1981) and identified naturally occurring hybrids among field isolates of Phytophthora species (Man in't Veld et al. 1998). Estimates of relatedness based on isozyme analysis among strains of Agaricus brunnescens were used to aid...

Occurrence In Nature

As indicated in Table 1 the carotenoids are widely distributed in foods and are the most widespread group of pigments in nature. They are present without exception in photosynthetic tissue occur with no definite pattern in nonphotosynthetic tissues such as roots, flower petals, seeds, fruits, vegetables and are found sporadically in the Kingdom Protista, including the (fungi-yeast mushrooms and bacteria). The red, yellow, and orange pigments in the skin, flesh, shell, or exoskeleton of some animal species are due to these pigments. These would include the lobster, shrimp, salmon, goldfish, and flamingo. People who consume large amounts of tomato juice may turn orange or red because of an intake of the pigments. The carotenoids, which cannot be made by animals, are the precursors to vitamin A, but unlike vitamin A, are not toxic in large doses (26). The acetylenic carotenoids are found in diatoms, Eu-glena, giant scallops, mussels, and starfish. A number of apo-carotenoids are formed...

Day 13 Recipe

2 cups mushrooms, sliced 1 2 cup chopped green onions In a non-stick skillet, saut mushrooms and onion over medium heat in 1 Tblsp orange juice. Add cooked wild rice and smoked turkey to warm through. Remove from heat. Spread tortillas with cranberry relish. Top each tortilla with equal amounts of turkey-rice mixture. Top with chopped pecans. Roll up and serve.

Cell wall

As we have just noted, not all eucaryotes possess a cell wall among those that do are fungi, algae and plants. Whilst the function, like that of procaryotes, is to give strength to the cell, the chemical composition is very different, generally being a good deal simpler. The cell walls of plants, algae and lower members of the fungi are based on cellulose (Figure 3.17a), a repeating chain of glucose molecules joined by f-1,4 linkages, and may also include pectin and hemicellulose, both also polymers of simple sugars. Most fungi such as yeasts and mushrooms contain chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (Figure 3.17b we have encountered N-acetylglucosamine before, as a component of peptidoglycan in bacterial walls.) Chitin is also to be found as the major component of insect and crustacean exoskeletons, where the function is also to provide strength and rigidity. As in procaryotes, the cell wall plays little part in the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment, a...


The betalains are confined to 10 closely related families of the order Caryophyllales. The only foods containing betacyanins are the red beet, B. vulgaris chard, B. vulgaris-, cactus fruit, Opuntia ficus-indica and pokeberries, P. americana. Pokeberries are not a normal food source, but the leaves are eaten as a green vegetable. Betalains are also found in a number of flowers and the poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria, but again these are not normal food sources. Their importance as a food colorant derives solely from extracts of red beets. Red beets contain 75 to 95 betanin with the remainder isobetanin, prebetanin, and isoprebetanin. The last two are the sulfate monoesters of betanin and isoprebetanin (Fig. 5), respectively. Beets contain both the red betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins, but cultivars are available with different ratios of the red and yellow pigments. Cultivars also are available that contain only the yellow betaxanthins. Cultivars of red beets with a wide...

The Oxford Debate

Spilled out onto the gallery itself and some adjoining rooms. Dr. Draper's lecture was rather boring, even though he promoted the controversial view that cultural progress was dependent on enlightened science's being able to loosen the grip of stultifying theology. Needing no other encouragement, a righteous Bishop Wilberforce took the floor. Briefed by Owen, the fifty-four-year-old Wilberforce, while still an intellect to be reckoned with, had begun to rely more on bluster than brains. He was not known as Soapy Sam for nothing. As expected, he gave a powerful if overwrought renunciation of Darwin's theory, lambasting the evolutionary initiative and restating the Creationist case. Echoing the words of his yet-to-be-published review of The Origin, Wilberforce made sport with Darwin and his earnest defenders. After noting Darwin's apparent observations about our unsuspected cousinship with mushrooms, he asked, is it credible that, even if transmutations were rapidly occurring, all...


Although a defined biochemical function for vanadium in higher animals and humans is yet to be described, recent reports of vanadium in bacteria and algae have provided clues as to the functional necessity of this metal in enzyme catalysis. About 10 years ago, vanadium was found to be essential for the activity of bromoperoxidase, an enzyme found in brown and red algae. Shortly thereafter, a vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase was characterized. Vanadium was also found in high concentrations in mushrooms and was shown to accumulate in large quantities in ascidians, specifically the blood cells (vanocytes) of these organisms. Speculation as to the function of vanadium in microorganisms ranges from antimicrobial action to electron transfer and the trapping of oxygen. In higher animals, however, vanadium has been shown to have insulin-mimetic properties and to stimulate cell proliferation and


Fresh eels are cooked in several ways, such as braising and steaming. Steaming, however, is the more popular method. In both Taiwan and Mainland China, eel is either steamed with various vegetables and mushrooms or stewed with Chinese herbs, such as medlar, lovage, and dates. This herb-filled soup is considered as a revitalizing tonic soup for frail or disabled persons.


By prolonging disease resistance associated with immaturity, and by directly inhibiting the pathogen at temperatures unfavorable to its development.133 Precooling is the first step in the handling of many fruits and vegetables. Hall183 reported that in a tropical environment, a delay of 2 h between harvesting and cooling can reduce the shelf life of produce by a whole day. Dicecco184 reported that mushrooms held at 10 C have only 25 to 50 the shelf life of those held at 1 C. Chen and coworkers185 reported that bamboo shoots in Taiwan produced 14 more finished product when stored at 5 C for 2 days after harvest than when held at room temperature before processing. A 40 reduction in marketability of strawberries was caused by a 4-h delay at a holding temperature of 30 C.45 If not cooled to -0.5 C within 24 h, Bartlett pears develop enzymatic breakdown known as watery break-down.186 However, there are commodities that do not require prompt cooling, such as freestone peaches,186...

Types of Polymerases

The three eukaryotic polymerases can be distinguished in the laboratory by the degree to which they are inhibited by the alpha-amanitin poison from the mushroom Amanita phalloides. Pol I is completely resistant to its effects, pol III is moderately sensitive, and pol II is highly sensitive. (The reason this poison is so deadly is precisely because it inhibits RNA polymerase.)


Figure 10.19 Phylogenetic tree indicating evolutionary branching and distance between groups based on on rRNA analysis. Fungi are represented by Coprinus (a mushroom), plants by Zea (corn), and animals by Homo (humans). (From Atlas, 1997 all rights reserved.) Figure 10.19 Phylogenetic tree indicating evolutionary branching and distance between groups based on on rRNA analysis. Fungi are represented by Coprinus (a mushroom), plants by Zea (corn), and animals by Homo (humans). (From Atlas, 1997 all rights reserved.)

Whole Egg Products

Folded omelets are the most popular egg dish in the United States. They are available in retail, catering, and restaurants, mostly in plain, cheese, and Western or Denver omelets (ham, onion, and cheese). However, hundreds of versions are known. Omelets are made from liquid eggs and water mix, which coagulates flat in a pan. A mixture of desired ingredients (meat, variety, mushroom, seafood, and various vegetables) is placed in the center, lightly cooked, and the coagulated egg is then folded. 8. Scrambled eggs originated in England although the French dispute it. They are made from well-beaten eggs and milk (7 3 ratio), salt, and pepper. The French variant uses cream and butter. Many variations exist using different ingredient combinations such as cheeses, mushrooms, ham, shrimp, and a variety of vegetables. The mix is fried gently in a heavy pan. They are commercially available in retail, catering, and restaurants (Fig. 2).


Mushrooms are the most promising product for using irradiation to delay mat-uration.264 A dose of approximately 1 kGy applied soon after picking at the closed button stage prolonged shelf life at 10 C from 1 day to 5 to 6 days. In an earlier study by Kovacs,265 a panel of judges could not detect any changes in odor, flavor, or texture of the irradiated mushrooms either immediately after treatment or during storage. Minnaar and McGill266 reported on the optimization of parameters for the heat irradiation processing of mushrooms. Differences in texture, color, and viscosity of the cream sauce were found between different replicates but not between different temperature combinations (110, 115, and 120 C). The general appearance and color of the products processed at 120 C were superior to those processed at 110 C. Use of 120 C as the processing temperature resulted in the best product where a shorter processing time is required to achieve commercial sterility (i.e., 28 min as compared to...


Fungi range in form and size from unicellular yeasts to large mushrooms and puffballs. Yeasts are unicellular, do not have flagella and reproduce asexually by budding or transverse fission, or sexually by spore formation. Multicellular forms such as moulds have long, branched, threadlike filaments called hyphae, which aggregate together to form a tangled mycelium (Figure 8.1a). In some fungi the hyphae have crosswalls or septa (sing septum) separating cells, which may nevertheless be joined by one or more pores, which permit cytoplasmic streaming, a form of internal transport. Such hyphae are said to be septate others have no crosswalls and are therefore coenocytic (i.e. many nuclei within a single plasma membrane, Figure 8.1b).


Although, as we will see, there is a good deal of variety among the patterns of reproduction among the fungi, all share in common the feature of reproducing by spores these are non-motile reproductive cells that rely on being carried by animals or the wind for their dispersal. The hyphae that bear the spores usually project up into the air, aiding their dispersal. One of the main reasons that we have to practise aseptic techniques in the laboratory is that fungal spores are pretty well ubiquitous, and will germinate and grow if they find a suitable growth medium. Spores of the common black bread mould, Rhizopus, (see below) have been found in the air over the North Pole, and hundreds of miles out to sea. In some fungi the aerial spore-bearing hyphae are developed into large complex structures called fruiting bodies. The most familiar example of a fruiting body is the mushroom. Many people think that the mushroom itself is the whole fungus but it only represents a part of it most is...

Other Agents

Fungi Several types of fungi can cause food poisoning. Some wild mushrooms are themselves highly poisonous, but may be mistaken for edible varieties by inexperienced pickers. On the other hand, growth of fungi within a food material can produce toxins. Ergotism, as described in Section 10.7.4, for example, is caused by the neurotoxins produced by the ascomycete Claviceps purpurea in infected cereal grains (especially, rye). Similarly, the aflatoxins produced by some strains of Aspergillus, particularly during growth on stored grains and peanuts, are potential carcinogens (cancer-causing agents). However, infection by ingested fungi is rare.

Box 82 Ergot

Many fungi produce natural mycotoxins these are secondary metabolites, which, if consumed by humans, can cause food poisoning that can sometimes be fatal. Certain species of mushrooms ('toadstools') including the genus Amanita contain substances that are highly poisonous to humans. Other examples of mycotoxin illnesses include ergotism (see Box 8.2) and aflatoxin poisoning. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus that grows on stored peanuts. In the early 1960s, the turkey industry in the UK was almost crippled by 'Turkey X disease', caused by the consumption of feed contaminated by A. flavus.

Spawn Production

Mushroom Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most commonly used as the basal medium for spawn production. Kumar (1995) has described other substrates used for spawn. Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms Figure 1 Major steps in mushroom production. Figure 1 Major steps in mushroom production. Often, failures to get satisfactory harvest are traced to spawn. If the spawn has not been made from a genetically suitable fruiting culture, or is too old and...

Complex Flavors

Sharpell (1985) has discussed in detail some complex mixtures of flavors and fragrances, which are associated with natural products. Microbial processes appear to be very promising for the production of complex dairy and mushroom like flavors. Screening of different organisms made it possible


Life Cycle Ascomycota

The Ascomycota are characterised by the production of haploid ascospores through the meiosis of a diploid nucleus in a small sac called an ascus. For this reason they are sometimes called the sac fungi or cap fungi. Many of the fungi that cause serious plant diseases such as Dutch elm disease and powdery mildew belong to this group. They include some 30 000 species, among them yeasts, food spoilage moulds, brown fruit rotting fungi and truffles. Note that the latter, often regarded as the most prized type of mushrooms by gourmets, are assigned to a completely different group to the true mushrooms, which belong to the Basidiomycota. Around half of ascomycote species exist in associations with algae to form lichens these will be discussed more fully in Chapter 15. Most ascomycetes produce mycelia that superficially resemble those of zygomycetes, but differ in that they have distinct, albeit perforated cross walls (septa) separating each cell.


The simplest indole alkaloids are derived from tryptamine itself. These include indole-3-acetic acid, a potent plant-growth stimulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryp-tamine), a vital mammalian product that inhibits or stimulates smooth muscles and nerves AT-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine (melotonin), a constituent of the pineal gland with melanophase-stimulating properties 5-methoxy-Ar,AT-dimethyltryptamine, a constituent of the hallucinogenic Virola snuffs psilocybine, a hallucinogenic found in the mushroom Psilocybe mexicana Heim.

Ph Of Various Foods

The pH of selected fresh, fermented, and commercially canned foods is shown in Table 1. In general, the pH of most fruits falls in the acid range (notable exceptions include bananas and cantaloupes), whereas the pH of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables falls in the low-acid range. Fermentation may be used to reduce the pH of a low-acid food, as is done with sauerkraut, pickles, and yogurt. For other foods the pH is lowered by direct addition of acid (marinated vegetables such as mushrooms or three-bean salad). A variety of foods are formulated with low-acid and acid components. In such cases the acid component may be used to acidify the low-acid component. An example of this might be a spaghetti sauce in which the tomato component (tomatoes, tomato paste, and or tomato sauce) acidifies the low-acid components (meat, onions, peppers).

Polyphenol Oxidase

PPO was first discovered in mid 1800s in mushrooms (2). PPO is a generic term for the group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of phenolic compounds at the expense of oxygen to quinones. Quinones are highly reactive, electrophilic molecules, which covalently modify and crosslink a variety of cellular constituents including nucleo-philes of proteins such as sulfhydryl, amine, amide, indol, and imidazole substituents. These quinone adducts produce brown or black color on cut surfaces of fruits and vegetables, and they are the major detrimental effect of the enzyme in postharvest physiology and food processing. PPO was first described by G. Bertrand in 1895 who demonstrated that the darkening of mushroom was due to the enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine (9). In addition to its general occurrence in plants, PPO is also found in some bacteria, fungi, algae, bryophytes, and gymnosperms (1013). Laccase was first observed by H. Yoshida in the latex of the Japanese lacquer tree (14). PPO...


Mycotoxins are chemicals that are produced by filamentous fungi that affect human or animal health. By convention, this excludes mushroom poisons. These fungi are called toxigenic fungi. All of these species are deuteromy-cetes (asexual) some of which have a known ascomycetous (sexual) stage. All of the mycotoxins discussed here are secondary metabolites of the fungi concerned, that is, compounds that are produced after one or more nutrients become limiting (1-3). The occurrence of mycotoxins is entirely governed by the existence of conditions that favor the growth of the fungi concerned. Under environmental conditions, different fungal species are favored as diseases of crop plants or as saprophytes on stored crops and sometimes other materials. When the conditions favor the growth of toxigenic species, it is an invariable and unfortunate rule that one or more of the compounds for which the fungus has the genetic potential are produced. Modern methods of agriculture appear to be...


Cadmium is absorbed easily by and found in all parts of food plants. In animals and humans, cadmium can be found in the liver, kidney, and milk. Cadmium can be found in all foodstuffs, and particularly high amounts occur in organs of cattle, seafood, and some mushroom species. Although the absorption of cadmium is low in the GI tract, it has a long biological half-life because it accumulates in the body. In contrast, cadmium absorption by inhalation is four to five times more. Smokers can have an intake of 4 mg d. Several factors impact on the amount of cadmium deposited in people. Absorption of cadmium from food varies and depends on age, nutritional status, and genetic factors. Adults accumulate less cadmium than do children. Cadmium absorption increases when the calcium or iron status is poor. Acute toxicity of cadmium affects the liver and the erythropoietic system. Chronic exposure of cadmium affects kidney and bones. High-fiber and low-fat diets interfere with the absorption of...

Food Irradiation

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved irradiation for use on wheat and wheat flour in 1963, and later approved its use on white potatoes, spices, pork, some fresh produce (onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, and strawberries), and poultry (Table 18.1). In 1997, in response to several foodborne illness outbreaks and increasing public concern over the safety of food supply, irradiation was approved for use on poultry products. In 1999 and 2000, irradiation was approved to curb pathogens in raw meats, including ground beef, steaks, and pork chops. Irradiation has also been used for more than 30 years to preserve some meals eaten by astronauts during long-term space missions. Some consumer groups have raised concerns that irradiation might cause the formation of toxic compounds in food. Because of these and other concerns, only a limited amount of irradiated food has been sold in the U.S. Irradiation gained notoriety in the winter of 2001, when the process was employed by the...

Evidentiary Concerns

The sharp bullet jacket edges that some soft-point and hollow-point handgun bullets have when they are deformed into a mushroom shape should be avoided. Infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV can pass from the victim to the health-care provider as a result of skin punctures from these sharp edges.


In some instances weight losses can be excessive for example, when blanching mushrooms, weight losses in excess of 19 and volume losses between 11 and 15 have been recorded (23). It has been shown that weight loss from vegetable tissue during water blanching occurs by two main mechanisms. In the typical temperature range of 50 to 55 C the cytoplasmic membranes that enclose the cell contents become disorganized, and on loss of turgor the cells contract and express some cell solution. Simultaneously, the damaged cell membranes allow free diffusion of solutes out of the cells. Because of continued diffusion of solutes out of the tissue during the blanch time, the net tissue weight loss also increases. The example of whole peas blanched in the laboratory at 85 C is shown in Figure 3. The kinetics of mushroom shrinkage have been described by three apparently first-order reactions (24). Artificially altering the water content of the vegetable prior to blanching will also influence...


Lipoxygenases have been found in plants, animal tissues including marine products, and more recently in mushrooms and other fungi. In plants the enzyme has been found in various organs and a comprehensive list of plant sources where lipoxygenase has been identified has been compiled.8 Lipoxygenase activity has been reported to be higher in leaves used for making high quality black tea than in those used for lower quality products. It is not known whether lipoxygenase is essential for the survival of plants, although in animals lipoxygenases and similar oxidizing enzymes such as cyclooxygenases give rise to important physiologically active compounds. It is not known whether a lipoxygenase-free plant or seed will be viable, although the technology to develop such products is available.


Fatty acids are quantitatively the major precursors of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma of plant products. Typical flavors generated by LOX were demonstrated by treating LOX extracts from green sea algae (Entero-morpha intestinalis) with linolenic acid (Kuo et al., 1996). Fresh apple-like, green, cucumber, mango and algal aromas were found in the volatile concentrates. The addition of LOX to green bean puree also caused flavor and aroma changes described as unripe banana, grassy, straw and ammonia (Williams et al., 1986). LOX contributed to sourness in the puree. Lactones that are important flavors of peaches and apricots are produced via LOX activity (Crouzet et al., 1990 Sevenants and Jennings, 1966). LOX pathway products from lettuce (Letuca sativa L.) are primarily cis-3-hexenal, cis-3-hexenol and cis-3-hexenyl-acetate (Charon et al., 1996). In both green and red bell pepper homogenates, the addition of linoleic acid considerably increased the levels of...

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