Treating gum disease with homemade remedies

Freedom From Dental Disease

The Primary Care Oral Health Action Pack can Favorably change the way you look at your oral health and what affects it. Increase your knowledge of YOUR teeth and gums, YOUR entire oral environment and yes, your SMILE! Reveal the TRUE CAUSE of cavities, decay of bone and tissue and disclose the proper biological balance. Put YOU in command over this contagious, yet EASILY preventable disease which runs rampant thoughout our population. Allow you to TAKE ACTION to restoring your teeth and gums to optimum health while preventing further decay and damage, as well as preventing any potentially related problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and so on. How to Become Dentally Self Sufficient. Research Advocates OraMedics The science behind the program! The 7 Factors Transcript - Dr. Nara's Last speech before the World Health Federation. Continue reading...

Freedom From Dental Disease Overview

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What You Should Know About Gum Disease

These books encapsulate my personal experience with fighting gum disease, described as follows: My gums bled during dental cleanings. I had pockets depths of 4 and 5mms and one 6mm pocket. My dentist told me I had moderate gum (periodontal) disease. She and / or the hygienist also told me that the ONLY thing that would help me was a Scaling and Root Planing Treatment - Otherwise knowns as a SRP or Deep Cleaning. After applying the information I learned on my own and the tools that I employed the results were that my pocket depths returned to normal. There was no more bleeding during dental cleanings, brushing or flossing. I was told that I no longer needed the Deep Cleaning or SRP treatment and that whatever I was doing, I should keep it up.

What You Should Know About Gum Disease Overview

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Etiology of Gum Disease

Gum disease arises as a result of bacterial infection of the gums, especially at the tooth margins. It is often assumed that excessive accumulation of plaque, arising from inappropriate dietary habits, is a factor in this condition, but there is little evidence for any material influence of diet. The milder forms of gum disease are extremely common in all populations. More severe disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss in older people. The best form of protection from gum disease is regular tooth brushing.

Gingivitisperiodontitis

Gingivitis and periodontitis (G P) make up the second major oral infectious disease. They are inflammatory conditions of the connective tissues that support the teeth. Gingivitis differs from periodontitis in that no permanent damage has occurred to the connective tissues. Loss of both normal gingival structures and alveolar bone are characteristic of periodontitis. G P illustrate both the protective and destructive natures of the immune response in the oral cavity and closely resemble immune responses to chronic antigen deposition in the lungs, kidneys and liver. The accumulation of bacterial plaques on teeth at the interface of the tooth and gum initiates an inflammatory response to bacterial and immune products generated from the plaque. Classical acute inflammation is the initial host response to plaque accumulation in the gingival tissues. Clinical indicators arc redness and swelling of the local gingival tissue, an increase in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow rate, and an...

Molecular Detection from Clinical Material

To date, direct detection of Actinomyces spp. has been applied principally to investigations of their roles in intraoral diseases. In a study of the microbial composition of supragingival and subgingival plaques in subjects with adult periodontitis, Ximenez-Fyvie et al. 13 used whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization as described by Socransky et al. 14 to detect the presence and levels of 40 bacterial taxa including Extensive studies designed to detect both cultivable and noncultivable bacteria, including novel taxa, have utilized PCR with all-bacterial or selective primers, followed by cloning in Escherichia coli and sequencing of clones. Together with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for selected taxa, this method has been used to determine species identity for the investigation of bacterial diversity in subgingival plaque 5 and tongue dorsa 6 and species associated with childhood caries. Among the large numbers of novel phylotypes detected in these...

Indications For Nutritional Support

The dietary history and using the assumption that maximum requirements of protein and energy for hospitalized patients are 1.5g kg 14h and 40 kcal kg 24 h, respectively. Body composition studies suggest that when the 'finger-thumb test' (feeling the dermis between finger and thumb when pinching triceps and biceps skinfolds) is positive, the body mass is composed of < 10 fat. If in the 'tendon-bone test', tendons are prominent to palpation and bony prominences of the scapula are apparent, patients have lost > 30 of body protein stores. However a standard clinical history and examination will also identify loss of muscle power, peripheral oedema, skin rashes, angular stomatitis, gingivitis, nail abnormalities, glossitis, paraesthesia and neuropathy.

Dental Paleopathology

Periodontal disease (pyorrhea) was also more common in antiquity. This condition is an infection involving not only the alveolar bone (the tooth socket) but also the soft tissues of the mouth. Incidence rates on skulls will be underestimates, as minor infections may not involve the bone. The effect of the disease is to cause recession of the alveolus, with loosening and eventual loss of the teeth. The gradual softening of the diet and improved oral hygiene has greatly reduced the incidence of this disease. However, evidence of periodontal disease extends back into the Pleistocene.

Gram Negative Endocarditis

Overall, Gram-negative agents cause 1-5 of IE cases. Although Pseudomonas spp. and the Enterobacteriacae are rare causes, the most common Gram-negative agents of native valve IE are members of the HACEK group. The HACEK group includes Haemophilus spp. (H. para-phrophilus, H. parainfluenzae, H. aphrophilus, H. influenzae), Actinobacillus actinomycetem-comitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella spp. (K. kingae, K. denitrificans). These slow-growing, fastidious Gram-negative bacilli cause IE with a subacute presentation and large vegetations with a propensity for embolization. In a recent review of studies published from 1993-2003, HACEK organisms were found to be responsible for 4 of native valve IE 3 . Actinobacillus actino-mycetemcomitans is the most common HACEK organism, with 93 published cases as of 2001 16 . Prior dental disease was reported in half of patients and underlying valvular disease in nearly three-quarters. About 1 of endocarditis is caused by...

Heads Theory Of Dual Cutaneous Sensibilities See Somesthesis Theories Of

In the area of health psychology, the most established model of health-related behavior is the health belief model (cf., Janz & Becker, 1984), which proposes that individuals - in response to a cue or action such as the experience of a symptom or invitation to attend a health checkup - will act on the basis of their beliefs about the advantages and disadvantages of taking a particular course of action (cf., the less widely used but more successful model, called the theory of reasoned action, which proposes that the best predictors of individuals' voluntary action are their behavioral intentions that are determined by one's attitude and beliefs regarding the behavior, and the subjective norm regarding the behavior, including normative beliefs concerning others' opinions about the behavior). According to the health belief model, persons' perceptions of the particular threat depends on their beliefs about its seriousness and their vulnerability and or...

Clinical Features

The clinical effects of mercury poisoning depend on the form and, in some cases, the route of administration. In general, the neurologic, gastrointestinal, and renal systems are predominantly affected. The short-chained alkyl compounds, methyl, dimethyl, and ethyl mercury, have the most devastating effects on the CNS, 24 followed by elemental mercury, whose primary toxicity is neurologic. Both forms of mercury produce erethism, a constellation of neuropsychiatric abnormalities including anxiety, depression, irritability, mania, sleep disturbances, excessive shyness, and memory loss. Tremor, either intention or nonintention, is a common physical finding.25 The short-chained alkyls produce paresthesias (early sign), ataxia, muscular rigidity or spasticity, and visual and hearing impairment and induce CNS teratogenic effects. Gastrointestinal effects of both elemental and short-chained alkyl compounds are mild. In cases of severe, chronic poisoning with elemental mercury, stomatitis,...

Immunemediated oral disease

Although PMNs are essential for oral health, periodontitis does occur in individuals with normal PMN function, indicating that there are numerous immune mechanisms involved in the protection or destruction of the oral tissues. A significant number of middle-aged adults develop adult chronic periodontitis, a chronic inflammation of the gingival tissues that varies from site to site in its progression and can eventually cause extensive loss of tooth-sup-port tissues. All the components required to initiate and maintain the immunopathologic processes involved in hypersensitivities types II, III and IV are present at some time during the progression of this disease. During the entire inflammatory response, PMNs are migrating from the vascular system into the gingival fluid and eventually into the oral cavity. Consequently, both PMNs and mononuclear immune cells have the opportunity to contribute biologically active agents which promote inflammation or tissue destruction at the disease...

Lessons from Other Prevention Efforts

Although the number of successful large-scale obesity prevention programs is limited, there is a wealth of information from past public health programs that can be used to address other chronic diseases and risk factors. The International Obesity Task Force identified 10 key principles on which efforts to prevent obesity at a population level should be based. These are presented in Box 2 and are drawn from experiences addressing cardiovascular disease, smoking, alcohol and drug problems, dental disease, road accidents, and other public health issues.

Diabetes Complications

The most frequent complications of long-term diabetes occur because of abnormalities in the blood vessels and nerves caused by chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, and amputations of the lower limb. There are also abnormalities that occur in the immune, cardiovascular, and digestive systems as well as periodontal disease, sexual dysfunction, and complications of pregnancy (ADA, 2002a Harris, 1995). Diabetes also is associated with psychological and social dysfunction. Because type 2 diabetes often does not have an acute onset, it may go undiagnosed for a number of years until a consequence of the disease is treated and the underlying diabetes is diagnosed (ADA, 2002a Centers for Disease Control, 2001).

Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses

See also Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Dental Disease. Diabetes Mellitus Classification and Chemical Pathology Dietary Management. Fructose. Glucose Chemistry and Dietary Sources Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level. Glycemic Index.

Chronic Vesiculoulcerative Disease

CICATRICIAL PEMPHIGOID Cicatricial pemphigoid is a chronic vesiculobullous mucocutaneous disorder with an autoimmune etiology. Autoantibodies against the basement membrane result in subepithelial cleft formation. Cicatricial pemphigoid affects people in the seventh decade of life, with no race predilection. The ratio of males to females 1 2.27. Oral lesions are seen in approximately 85 percent of patients, but any mucosal or cutaneous site can be affected. Oral lesions may begin as a desquamative gingivitis or vesiculobullous lesions. Oral lesions eventually become denuded, leaving a painful, erythematous, irregularly bordered erosion or ulcer. Lesions may persist for weeks. Significantly, ocular involvement occurs in 65 percent of cicatricial pemphigoid patients and, if untreated, may lead to blindness. Referral to an ophthalmologist is essential. Diagnosis is by biopsy and immunofluorescent staining of perilesional mucosa. Histologically, the lesions show inflammatory infiltrates...

Physical Examination

A careful and thorough physical examination is essential because sufficient history is often not available to focus the examination. Often, developmentally disabled individuals will be very agitated or have extreme tactile defensiveness, making a thorough examination and detection of physical signs difficult. Special attention should be given to all body orifices (ears, nares, mouth, anus, vagina, and urethra) because foreign objects are often inserted into these areas without the caretakers' knowledge. A dental examination is also important because a large number of individuals with mental retardation have significant periodontal disease.

Granulomatous Disease

WEGENER'S GRANULOMATOSIS Wegener's granulomatosis causes necrotizing lesions of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, kidney, and small arteries and veins. Any organ system can be involved. Orally, a distinctive form of gingivitis called strawberry gingivitis is seen. Originating from the interdental gingiva, strawberry gingivitis is characterized by a hyperemic granular hypertrophy of the gingival tissue. Eventually involving the entire gingiva and periodontal tissue, tooth mobility and loss are common. Poor healing at the site of tooth loss also occurs. Oral ulceration, jaw claudication, and temporomandibular joint arthralgia also may occur. Oral lesions are frequently the first manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis. Since the disease is uniformly fatal without early detection and treatment, familiarity with this entity is important.1941

Oral diseases and cariogenicity

Oral refers to the mouth, and includes the teeth and gums (gingival) and their supporting tissues, the hard and soft palate, the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat, the lips, salivary glands, chewing muscles, and upper and lower jaw bones. Digestion begins in the oral cavity, and there are numerous supporting structures for the mouth including the nervous, vascular, and immune systems. Humans contract oral diseases for a number of reasons including genetics, poor hygiene, poor nutrition, alcohol and tobacco use, drug abuse (Shaner et al., 2006), and complications from other diseases such as diabetes (Sandberg et al., 2000, Twetman et al., 2002), cancer (Woo et al., 1993), obesity (Ritchie and Kinane, 2003), and osteoporosis (Norlen et al., 1993). Oral infections themselves may play a role in progressing pathogenesis of many systemic diseases in healthy individuals, ill patients, and those immunocompromised (Ridker et al., 1998). The theory is that oral infections, specifically...

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

Anorexia Ill-fitting dentures Periodontal disease Oropharyngeal disease Orofacial dyskinesias neurological diseases can significantly impair mobility and physical function. The use of adapted appliances and cutlery in such cases may improve manual dexterity and preserve the ability to self-feed. In older persons with severely impaired function, who are unable to cook, meal delivery services ('meals on wheels') may be an acceptable alternative to home-cooked meals. Tooth loss is another important risk factor for undernutrition. Periodontal disease and edentulism are highly prevalent among the geriatric population and can impair masticatory ability. Older persons who have lost teeth, experience pain on mastication, or receive inadequate dental care should be carefully screened and offered appropriate therapy. The use of dentures may improve food intake. However, where dentures are poorly tolerated, alteration in the consistency of meals is helpful. Dysphagia occurs commonly in older...

Applications of germfree animals Surgical application

The use of germ-free animals and the principles of gnotobiology have provided much information concerning the origin of caries and periodontal disease. The flora in these animal models can be modified, giving information about the cause of both diseases. Also, treatment and prevention can be studied with the help of gnotobiotic animal models.

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes

The dentogingival margin may be the area in the body most sensitive to the loss of PMN function. Localized juvenile (LJP) and prepubertal periodontitis are two specific forms of periodontal disease found in young adults and children, respectively - populations not commonly afflicted by periodontal diseases. The majority of patients with these conditions have PMN functional deficiencies. In most of the LJP patients there are no other symptoms of a leukocyte functional problem. Identified defects in PMNs from these patients include genetic-defects in the maximum expression of chemoattract-ant receptors on the cell membrane, an intracellular signal transduction defect, or an inability to kill Acti-nobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a plaque bacterium thought to be the etiological agent in LJP. Clinical and in vitro experimental data strongly indicate that the PMN is the protective immune cell for the dentogingival area.

TABLE 2833 Physiologic Changes Associated with Eating Disorders

Self-induced vomiting results in various disorders. Dental problems are caused by gastric acid regurgitation into the oral cavity. In addition, the oral hygiene of most anorexics is poor, and the vigorous brushing often done by bulimics aggravates dental problems. This poor oral hygiene, together with dietary deficiencies and dehydration of the soft tissue of the mouth, can cause gingivitis and dental erosion.

Paraneoplastic syndromes

A rare syndrome, also called hepatocutaneous syndrome and superficial necrolytic dermatitis, has been described in three cases, with some features resembling the condition observed in the dog. A pancreatic tumour was diagnosed in a 11-year-old ovariohys-terectomised female Abyssinian cat with gingivitis, stomatitis and hepatomegaly. There was alopecia, erythema and exudation in the axillae. Scaling and patchy alopecia of the distal extremities was noted and the footpads were unaffected. Histological findings of skin biopsies were supportive of a diagnosis of metabolic epidermal necrosis (Patel et al, 1996). However, unlike the usual clinical presentation in the dog, the feet were not affected. In another case the feet were affected and the cat had a hepatopathy (Godfrey & Rest, 2000). There is no effective therapy and the affected cat usually undergoes euthanasia.

Fusobacterium Infection And Immunity

F. nucleatum (currently divided into four subspecies) is the predominant fusobacterium found in the oral flora and in human infections. It has been associated with dental plaques, necrotizing gingivitis, acute ulcerative gingivitis (Vincent's angina) and periodontitis. It is also the major fusobacterium recovered from all head and neck infections and their sequelae. Elevated antibodies to protein antigens of F. nucleatum were found in patients with periodontal disease, peritonsillar cellulitis and abscesses, infectious mononucleosis and acute streptococcal, nonstrepto-coccal and recurrent tonsillitis. It is possible that the increase in antibodies to these outer membrane proteins - which may contribute to bacterial attachment - may signify a potential direct or indirect pathogenic role for this organism in these infections.

The Normal Periodontium

The periodontium, or attachment apparatus, is essential for maintaining the integrity of the dentoalveolar unit. The attachment apparatus consists of a gingival component and a periodontal component. The gingival component includes the junctional epithelium, gingival tissue, and gingival fibers. The periodontal component includes the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum of the root of the tooth. The periodontal ligament consists of collagen fibers that extend from the alveolar bone to the root of the tooth, adhering to the cementum via a hemidesmosomal attachment. The latter component forms the majority of the attachment apparatus, and the former aids primarily in maintaining the integrity of the periodontal ligament. Disease states such as gingivitis and periodontal disease weaken and destroy the attachment apparatus, resulting in tooth mobility and tooth loss.1

Periodontal Pathology

PERIODONTAL DISEASE Gingival inflammation and bleeding, or gingivitis, results from the accumulation of plaque along the gingival margins. Hormonal variations of puberty, adolescence, and pregnancy, as well as many medications such as phenytoin, also may result in gingival inflammation. As the inflammatory process progresses, destruction of the attachment apparatus occurs, and the gingival sulcus deepens, resulting in periodontal pockets and periodontitis. Periodontal pockets create a favorable environment for plaque accumulation, maturation, and mineralization into calculus. Further destruction of the periodontal attachment results. Eventually, sufficient bone loss causes tooth mobility and tooth loss. 110 The pathogenesis of periodontal disease is uncertain, but there is a very strong association between adult periodontitis and Bacteroides gingivalis. Many other specific bacteria have been shown to have a role in periodontitis. Destruction of tissue collagens, proteoglycans, and the...

Chapter References

N Engl J Med 322 373, 1990. 10. Suzuki JB Diagnosis and classification of periodontal disease. Dent Clin North Am 32 195, 1988. 13. Horning GM, Cohen ME Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, periodontitis, and stomatitis Clinical staging and predisposing factors. J Periodontol 66 990, 1995. 37. Cianciola LJ, Park BH, Bruck E, et al Prevalence of periodontal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (juvenile diabetes). J Am Dent Assoc 104 653, 1982.

Prokaryotic Biodiversity And Prokaryotic Phylogenetics

One such study, by Paster et al. (5), revealed an estimated 500 to 600 species or phylotypes residing in the human mouth. The samplings were taken from a variety of individuals, some with dental disease. Studies like this, from one small host environment, demonstrate the unknown prokaryotes residingb, as roughly a third of those detected were new phylotypes that could not be cultivated, and shows that even the word species has become ill-defined and subject to interpretation in a way that it has not been before.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

There are numerous oral manifestations of HIV infection. Primary HIV infection, occurring from 1 to 6 weeks after contact, is an acute viral syndrome but may have associated intraoral findings such as a sore throat, mucosal erythema, and focal ulceration. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, particularly of the cervical lymph nodes, is present in 70 percent of otherwise asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. The presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is highly variable, and numerous oral manifestations can occur. Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common oral finding and may lead to the initial diagnosis of AIDS. HIV-related gingivitis is distinctive, presenting as a 2- to 3-mm linear band of erythema along the gingival free margin. Periodontitis among the HIV-infected population is common and usually more aggressive and painful in its presentation. Such necrotizing periodontitis is distinguished from acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, which is also a...

Food and health applications of probiotics translational aspects

Ninety-five percent of the general population has dental caries or periodontal disease (Caglar, 2005). Controlling these diseases has not been highly successful despite preventative therapies such as fluoride and vaccines against oral pathogenic bacteria. Probiotics are now being explored as a treatment option for alleviation or prevention of dental diseases. in cariogenesis. Dental diseases may result due to changes in the complex microbiota present in the oral cavity. Replacement therapy or bacteriotherapy occurs when a pathogenic strain is replaced by a nonpathogenic strain (Caglar, 2005). Bacteriotherapy for S. mutans has resulted in human clinical trials with S. mutans BCS3-L1. This strain was modified to eliminate cariogenicity, promote colonization versus other endogenous S. mutans strains, and limit genetic transformation (Clancy, 2000 Hillman, 1998, 2000). Cariogenicity by S. mutans begins when the bacteria ferments dietary sugars into lactic acid. The decrease in pH due to...

Immunodeficiencies and oral health

Response are prone to develop oral thrush, C. albicans infection of the oral mucosa. Boys with a deficiency of the CD40 ligand are unable to develop leukocytosis in response to a bacterial infection, and many develop neutropenia, resulting in severe local gingival infections by oral bacteria. Passive administration of granulocyte-macrophage cell-stimulating factor reverses the neutropenia and alleviates the dentogingival infections. Hereditary angioneurotic edema due to a lack of the complement component, CI inhibitor, manifest oral symptoms characterized by the swelling of oral tissues, especially the lips. As described above, deficiencies in the number or function of PMNs are associated with oral bacterial infection of the gingival crevicular area and rapid loss of tooth supporting tissues. The loss or significant decrease in saliva flow in Sjogren's syndrome or after glandular damage from radiotherapy results in rampant dental caries, increased severity of periodontal disease,...

Heavy Metal Intoxication

Ingestions of one of several heavy metals can lead to systemic manifestations. Lead poisoning, or plumbism, is the most common heavy metal poisoning. Systemic signs of lead poisoning are highly variable depending on the age of the patient and the amount of lead ingested. Symptoms range from colic, iritability, fatigue, and anemia to encephalopathy. Intraorally, lead poisoning presents as an ulcerative stomatitis or a bluish hue to the buccal mucosa. The classic bluish lead line on the ginigiva, secondary to subepithelial deposits of lead sulfide, also may be seen. In addition, a tremor on tongue thrusting, excessive saliva production, metallic taste, and severe periodontal disease may occur. Treatment is chelation therapy.40

Endocrine Abnormalities

INSULIN Most of the systemic complications of diabetes are related to the microangiopathy caused by the disease.19 Oral manifestations are associated more commonly with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus but may be associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Periodontal disease is more common and more aggressive in the diabetic patient. Wound healing postoperatively is delayed, and diabetics are prone to infections secondary to impairment of neutrophil function. In the poorly controlled diabetic patient, gingival erythema and proliferation are common. 37 The poorly controlled diabetic patient is more susceptible to oral candidiasis. Erythematous candidiasis with its central papillary atrophy of the tongue is reported in up to 30 percent of diabetic patients. An increased incidence in benign migratory glossitis is seen in insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic sialadenosis, or diffuse nontender enlargement of the parotid salivary glands, is not uncommon. Xerostomia is a...

Nutritional Findings

What both laxative abuse and vomiting have in common is the depletion of fluid, leading to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances, particularly hypokalemia (low potassium). In some cases, hypo-glycemia may develop as a response to fasting or binge eating and vomiting. In extreme cases, death may occur through cardiac arrest or gastrointestinal complications, such as oesophageal or gastric rupture. Vomiting also leads to erosion of dental enamel, resulting in periodontal disease and an increased incidence of dental caries. Other effects of bulimia nervosa include menstrual irregularities, swelling of the salivary glands secondary to vomiting, and reflex constipation, which occurs as a consequence of laxative abuse and dehydration. Laxative abuse has also been found to cause stea-torrhea and protein-losing enteropathy in some cases.

Dental Problems

Dental anomalies in Down's syndrome include changes in tooth structure, reduced total number of teeth, and delayed or abnormal eruption. Together with the physical abnormalities of the facial appearance and oral cavity, these can all impact on feeding. Dental disease is common in Down's syndrome because teeth are more at risk of wear through bruxism and decay due to fragile enamel. In addition, gum disease (gingivitis) and oral infections due to mouth breathing can lead to teeth becoming loose and falling out. A healthy balanced diet, low in sugar-containing fluids and fizzy drinks (including 'diet' varieties), without frequent snacks and plenty of fruit and vegetables will help preserve teeth.

Amoeba

This group of parasites belong to the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina (Bruckner, 1992). The cyst and trophozoite are the two morphological stages of the amoeba. Some amoeba (commensal) can infect humans, but do not cause illness. The free-living amoeba are frequently found in the environment, particularly water sources, but under certain circumstances they can infect humans. Three of public health relevance are Acantamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia. Other amoeba can be identified as infecting humans, but not necessarily causing illness. Some of these commensal amoeba include the genera Entamoeba, Endolimax, and Iodamoeba. Blastocystis has been traditionally considered an amoeba, but has now been reclas-sified as fungi. The amoeba in humans is most often found to infect the buccal cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. Entamoeba gingivalis is commonly associated with gingivitis and is localized in the soft tartar between the teeth and the oral mucosa. It does not have a...

Causes

Several complications of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia, fetal distress, fetal growth restriction, abruptio placenta, fetal death, placenta previa, and multiple gestations, are associated with preterm delivery, either spontaneous or induced. Importantly, developments in obstetric and neonatal care, and the consequent increase in obstetric interventions, are likely to be associated with the increase in rates of preterm delivery observed in recent years. Although several lifestyle factors and conditions have been implicated as possible causes, a definitive etiology has not been determined, making it difficult to identify women at risk and to implement preventive strategies. Poor nutrition, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse have been indicated as possible risk factors, as well as young maternal age, poverty, short stature, occupational factors, and psychological stress. In addition, genetic factors are likely to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of pre-term delivery, as...

Lad Ii

This new adhesion molecule deficiency, which was described in 1992, is also characterized by recurrent infections, no pus formation, gingivitis, and pronounced neutrophilia. The severity of the infection resembles the moderate form of LAD I (Table 2). The syndrome is also manifested by mental retardation, growth retardation and exhibits the rare Bombay blood group phenotype. LAD II is due to a congenital defect of endogenous fucose metabolism. This results in an inability to synthesize fucosylated carbohydrate molecules, such as sialyl Lewis, the ligand for selectins, on the neutrophils. Neutrophils from LAD II patients express normal levels of 3 -integrins and L-selectin, but lack sLe* or other fucose-containing surface antigens. Neutrophils from these patients do not bind to E-selectin expressed on cytokine-activated cultured endothelial cells, or to purified E- or P-selectin, and exhibit a marked decrease in migration to skin chambers or a skin window in vivo, Nonetheless, under...

Humoral immunity

In addition to slgA the adaptive systemic vascular humoral immune response is involved in oral immunity however, its exact role is not clearly defined. Elevated levels of IgG and often IgA antibodies specific for subgingival plaque bacteria are usually detected in serum of patients with periodontal diseases compared with normal age-matched controls. In the majority of cases the bacterium to which the elevated serum antibodies specifically bind are the putative etiological bacteria for the type of periodontal disease identified clinically in the patient. For example, LJP patients almost always have elevated levels of polyclonal IgG antibodies specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans antigens and adults with chronic adult periodontitis have elevated levels of serum polyclonal IgG antibodies specific for antigens of P. gingivalis, a putative etiologic bacteria for that form of periodontal disease. Moderately elevated levels of antibodies to other plaque bacteria are sometimes found, but...

Leukemia

Patients with leukemia frequently experience easy bruising and spontaneous gingival hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopenia. Common oral findings include petechial hemorrhage of the soft palate. Leukemic patients are more prone to oral candidiasis and oral herpetic infections. Ulceration of the oral mucosa as a result of severe neutropenia, or neutropenic ulcers, occurs in leukemia due to the host's inability to combat normal oral flora. These ulcers are typically deep, punched-out lesions with a gray-white necrotic base. They occur most commonly after mucosal trauma, herpes infection, or chemotherapeutics. Acute leukemias, particularly acute monocytic forms, cause infiltration of leukemic cells into oral soft tissue, especially gingival tissue, resulting in swollen, boggy hyperplastic gingivitis. Gingival lesions

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