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The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula

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The Problem of Feelings

I had discovered that my experience was not unique. Indeed, one of psychology's greatest pioneers had reported just this kind of experience. James's view of emotion is the core of the position that I will be describing throughout this book that our feelings are the consequences of our actions. They are about our actions, and they are in fact no more or less than knowledge or information about our actions. The way you know that you are angry is through your angry behavior, and the way I know that I am happy is because I smile. The only difference is that I experience my own smile as the feeling of happiness. We know our own minds by observing our own behavior.

Selfperception As Relational Not Causal

The role of the situation in self-perception constitutes another aspect of the difference between James's view and self-perception theory, a difference that requires emphasis. A major component of the relationship that constitutes feelings is between the behaviors emphasized by James and the social and physical context in which the behaviors occur. A smile in relationship with the arrival of a friend constitutes happiness, but a smile in relationship to the arrival of a relative given to lengthy descriptions of her

Cognitions About The Situation Cognitions About The Behavior

Equally important are the cognitions about the behaviors and their contexts. A smile in response to a photographer's request that you say Cheese is less likely to make you feel happy, and a pounding heart and sweaty palms will be less disturbing if you realize they are the product of too many cups of coffee. In fact, a feeling of happiness is not a direct consequence of the smile, but rather is a product of the relationship between the smile and the context in which it occurs. The default interpretation of a smile appears to be happiness, and the default interpretation of a frown is anger, but both can be disqualified easily. A substantial portion of the literature to be reviewed in later chapters demonstrates the ways in which manipulations of contextual understandings of behavior change its impact on feelings.

The Amazing Success of Statistical Prediction Rules

Making accurate judgments is important for our health and happiness, but also for the just and effective operation of many of our social institutions. Judgments about whether someone will become violent can determine whether that person loses their freedom by being involuntarily committed to a psychiatric institution. Predictions about whether a prisoner if set free will commit violence and mayhem can determine whether he is or is not paroled. Judgments about a student's academic abilities play a role in determining the quality of medical school or law school she goes to, or even whether she gets to study law or medicine at all. Judgments about a person's future financial situation can determine whether they receive loans to make large purchases such judgments can also determine whether they receive the most attractive loans available. And most

Manipulating Expressions Directly

On the other hand, the results for the experimental subjects were exactly what James would have expected. When subjects were in the smile position, they reported significantly higher levels of happiness, and when they were in the frown position, they reported significantly higher levels of anger. On the average, the events for this group of 60 subjects were like those I had experienced in my car Adopting facial expressions of emotion led to the corresponding emotional feelings.

Making Sure The Strategies

Goodness of fit is as important in self-care strategies as it is in clothes. Making or buying clothes that fit our friends, or that fit the average person, or are the most popular sizes is unlikely to be a good approach to finding clothes that fit us. Using self-care strategies that are lifesavers for our colleagues may make us miserable. What sustains, replenishes, and gives meaning to an individual may flow far from the mainstream. Few us would advise someone who has found happiness, significance, and contentment in choosing a solitary monastic life with vows of silence and poverty, You know, you really ought to get out and socialize more, and find ways to earn some money so that you'll have a nest egg you could rely on. I know you'd feel better about yourself and have a better life

Emotion Memory And Judgment

In a second study (Laird et al., 1982, Study 2), as part of an apparently unrelated task, the subjects heard a number of emotional sentences, such as Oh, be careful and That really makes me mad, each spoken by a different person. These sentences expressed emotions of happiness, sadness, fear, and anger. Later, and unexpectedly, participants were asked to recall as many sentences as possible. Different groups of subjects tried to recall the sentences while in happy, angry, sad, and fearful expressions. Consistent with the first study, subjects recalled more of each type of sentence while they were in a congruent expression. These two studies demonstrated that emotional feelings affected the ability to recall emotional material that was not personally relevant. A third study (Laird, Cuniff, Sheehan, Shulman, & Strum, 1989) looked at the effects of expressions on recall of personal history. Subjects were asked to remember incidents from their own lives while they maintained...

Are The Effects Of Expressions Big Enough For Selfperception Theory

The second question concerns the particular effects in these experiments. For a number of reasons, the experimental effects seem likely to underestimate what happens in everyday life. Perhaps the most important of these reasons is that the expression manipulations are inevitably very crude. To disguise the purposes of these experiments, the procedures for manipulating expressions all produce approximations to real expressions. To the extent that the manipulated expressions do not match the subjects' own natural expressions, the magnitude of the effects would be underestimated. Consider, for example, the kinds of expressions that are produced by asking people to hold a pencil in their mouth or to pronounce the sound u. They certainly have some of the features of a natural expression of happiness or disgust, but equally clearly the expressions are only approximations. Insofar as they do not produce the complete, natural expression, we would expect the intensity of subjects' experiences...

Ethics and Mechanical Hearts and Cardiac Assist Devices

Identity of those getting a chance at a transplant may change while the overall number of transplants done remains the same (Caplan). Many believe that assist devices will not save more lives since there are only a small number of cadaver hearts available for transplant. One must find the balance between simply extending life versus improving its quality and happiness.

The Longing For Merger

What, then, is the aim of love beyond the pursuit of simple pleasure, sex, or happiness Beyond pleasure, love seems to aim for release from the self. Love's potential to enrich or deplete, to give joy or sorrow, can only be understood within the context of the lover's desire for merger with the beloved. Ultimately, people do not achieve their deepest joy in solitude, but in the concordance of two souls. The aim of love is nothing less than to overcome separateness and achieve union or merger with the beloved. In that merger (or perhaps I should say in that imaginative merger) the lover achieves both an exaltation of feeling and a profound sense of release. The longing for union and for the elusive and complex gratifications it promises is so compelling that the lover willingly foregoes lesser pleasures and endures any pain. The peremptoriness of the wish is such that the lover will sacrifice anything whatsoever to fulfill it even his reason. So it is that love sometimes appears to be...

Principle of Respect for Autonomy

Liberty is supported by the principle of utility. This principle is that an action or policy is right to the extent that it promotes the greater happiness for the greater number. However, securing negative liberty does not establish autonomy as fundamental in moral theory. Other philosophers have gone further than Mill in their defense of autonomy.

Posture And Emotional Feelings

Probably the most distinctive expressive feature of happiness is the smile. In contrast, the facial expression of sadness is much less distinctive. Instead, the most striking expressive behavior of sadness is the slumped, curled-up posture. Self-perception theory would certainly expect that postures would play the same role in producing emotional feelings as any other kind of expressive behavior.

Expectancy Theory Of Work

EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY. utility theory. The Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann (19031957) and the German-born American economist Oskar Morgenstern (1902-1977) formulated the modern version of expected utility theory of decision-making which indicates that a human decision-maker chooses strategies actions that maximize expected utility (i.e., the average subjective desirability of an outcome event associated with one's decision or preference for it - calculated by multiplying each of the possible outcomes of the decision by its probability and then summing the resulting products), and where utilities are determined by revealed preferences (i.e., a preference inferred from observations of a decision-maker's actual choices) cf., maximizing op- timizing hypothesis - posits that people act so as to gain as much utility (regarding happiness, money, etc.) as possible this is in contrast to the American economist psychologist Herbert Alexander Simon's (1916-2001)...

ORigiN botanical fACTs

The quince became a symbol of love and happiness, a symbolism that lasted into the Middle Ages. Quince was eaten at weddings, shared by brides and grooms as a token of their love. Medieval English manuscripts contain recipes mentioning char de Quynce, the old name for quince marmalade. In fact, the word marmalade is derived from the Portuguese word for quince, marmelo. Today the quince is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean, in South America, and in the United States, where California is the leading producer.

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Throughout the history of Imperial China males were preferred over females. Female infants suffered infanticide at a higher rate than males. Today, female infanticide remains high in the countryside but not in the city. When a girl is born, people will call the event small happiness, but when it is a male the event is called big happiness. In China's largest cities this distinction is less apparent. Given the realities of the one-child policy combined with new residence and descent practices, urban girls are highly valued.

Courtship and Marriage

In the early decades of China's post-revolutionary period, marriage required parental approval. However, by the 1980s that was changing. In China's largest cities, a new generation had come of dating age and, through their ideas and actions, had expanded the customary notions of courtship, generating new expectations and demands for emotional satisfaction within marriage. Part of this thinking suggested that if dating could provide some emotional excitement and satisfaction, marriage could do the same. In this way marriage is no longer seen as primarily a vehicle for procreation, but rather it is regarded as the primary institution for achieving happiness, contentment, and emotional security.

Darwins Theory Of Emotions

Charles Darwin speculated that in prehistoric times - before communication that used words was common - one's ability to communicate with facial expressions increased an individual's chances of survival. Facial expressions could convey the various important messages of threat, submission, happiness, anger, and so on. Darwin's theory of emotions holds that the basic emotions demonstrated by facial expressions are a universal language among all humans no matter what their cultural setting. Today, however, it is an accepted belief that although cultures share a universal facial language, they differ in how, and how much, they express emotion. For example, as found in experimental studies, Americans grimace when viewing a film of someone's hand being cut off, whereas Japanese viewers tend to hide their emotions, especially in the presence of others. See also EKMAN-FRIESEN THEORY OF EMOTIONS EMOTIONS, THEORIES LAWS OF FACIAL-FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS IZARD'S THEORY OF EMOTIONS. REFERENCES...

The virtues of flawed costbenefit analyses

No ''neutral'' measure of value for comparing very distinct sorts of goods. Values are incommensurable. We cannot reduce all value to money, and there is no realistic way to assign commensurable units of value to freedom, happiness, personal security, or a (relatively) pristine Grand Canyon. These objections show that it is not possible to measure the net benefits (or costs) of different options against each other. We are sympathetic to many of these objections to cost-benefit analysis (Anderson 1993, Sen 2000). Still, we would argue that flawed cost-benefit analyses can be very useful and important.

Welfare Ethics And Animal Agriculture

Welfare is a normative or evaluative term indicating how well or poorly a creature does (e.g., fares) in a given situation or setting. The term became especially important in the British utilitarian tradition of ethics and social thought made famous by Jeremy Bentham (1748 1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806 1873), by which conduct was evaluated in light of its impact on human welfare. Many approaches in ethics hold that human conduct must abide by predetermined constraints. In contrast, utilitarian ethics claim that actions or policies are justified only if they have the best possible impact on the happiness or satisfaction (e.g., welfare) of affected parties, without regard to whether conduct conforms to legal, religious, and customary rules and codes. As early as 1789, Bentham argued that the concept of welfare applied to both human beings and nonhuman animals capable of suffering.

Emotional Arousal Misattributed to Nonemotional Causes

Most people erroneously recall the Schachter and Singer (1962) study as showing that epinephrine increased feelings of both anger and euphoria. They probably misremember these results because the study did produce some other dramatic effects on feelings of both anger and happiness. These involved the group of subjects who were told what the consequences of the adrenalin would be. In that study, you will recall, three groups of subjects were injected with epinephrine. The groups differed in what they were told about the effects of the injections. One group was told nothing, and a second group was misinformed about the effects. The third group was told accurately what the effects would be pounding heart, sweaty palms, flushing, and so forth. This informed group had received

Basic Emotions and Facial Expression

It is widely thought that a small number of emotions are basic or primary. Data suggest that there are six basic emotional expressions happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and sadness. However, these categories are without clearly demarcated boundaries and show some overlap (e.g., facial expressions can be members of more than one category). The conceptual structure of emotions may thus bear some similarity to the conceptual structure of colors. As with primary colors, there are basic emotions, and, like colors, an emotion can be a blend of other emotions. Basic emotions correspond closely to the emotions signaled from human facial expressions. The basic emotional expressions are recognized easily by normal subjects and are recognized consistently across very different cultures, as shown in the work of the psychologist Paul Ekman.

The Right Hemisphere

In contrast to recognition of emotional stimuli, emotional experience appears to be lateralized in a pattern supporting the valence hypothesis, in which the left hemisphere is more involved in positive emotions and the right hemisphere is more involved in negative emotions. Richard Davidson posited an approach withdrawal dimension, correlating increased right hemisphere activity with increases in withdrawal behaviors (including feelings such as fear or sadness, as well as depressive tendencies) and left hemisphere with increases in approach behaviors (including feelings such as happiness).

Communitarian Critiques of Liberalism

Communitarians note that the state cannot remain neutral toward all elements of the good life. It is the role of the state to protect the life and liberty of its citizens and to foster opportunity among them (i.e., to foster the pursuit of happiness). Although safeguarding life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness does not logically entail a vision of the good life, questions of what kind of life a society wishes to foster can be unavoidable in practice. Simply providing and mandating a specific minimum amount of such a value neutral commodity as education can be more conducive to some visions of the good life than to others. Given the inevitability of impacting on visions of the good life, communitarians often seek ways to produce consensus regarding the values to be fostered, or to create policy solutions that balance widely shared values.

Enrichment and Research

''Enrichment'' has potential costs as well as potential benefits. On the surface, it seems likely that an animal living with others or in an interesting environment would be happier than an animal that spends its entire life alone in a standard laboratory cage. But consider the Norway rat, a common laboratory animal. When placed together, groups of male rats will engage in a

Are Behaviors Sufficient To Produce Emotional Feelings

Feelings, including anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, guilt, and romantic love. The behaviors manipulated have included facial expressions, postures, gaze, tone of voice, breathing patterns, overt actions, and autonomic arousal. Clearly, inducing people to act emotionally does lead to emotional feelings, as James and self-perception theory predicted. Emotional behaviors do seem to be sufficient. First of all, both expressions and postures have been shown to have very specific effects on feelings that cannot be explained by simple variations in pleasantness (Duclos & Laird, 2001 Duclos et al., 1989 Flack et al., 1999a Flack et al., 2000 Flack et al., 1999b Levenson et al., 1991 Levenson et al., 1990 Levenson et al., 1992) and also on memories (Laird et al., 1989 Laird et al., 1982 Schnall & Laird, 2002). In addition, the pattern of confirming and disconfirming results of tests of Schachter's theory of emotion (Schachter & Singer, 1962) actually supports indirectly the...

Experimenter Bias And Compliant Participants

What is needed is a true double-blind design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which treatment the participants were receiving. Unfortunately, in almost all this research, the experimenter administers the treatment and has to know what it is supposed to be. However, many of the studies discussed already contain a different kind of double blindness. In these studies, the expectation is that individual participants will differ in their response to the self-perception manipulations, and these differences will be predictable from some other measure. For example, in two studies people who were field dependent were not expected to respond to self-perception manipulations, whereas those who were field independent would (Edelman, 1984). In one of these, Joan Duncan (Duncan & Laird, 1977) manipulated facial expressions into smiles and frowns and might have influenced people to be happier in the smile and angrier in the frown. However, she also was expecting...

Hedonism Theorylaw Of

Ethical philosophical theory of hedonism (the notion that pleasure is the person's ultimate goal) goes back to the Greek writings of Aristippus (435-360 B.C.) and Epicurus (341270 B.C.). Aristippus developed the first coherent exposition of hedonism, which held pleasure to be the highest good, and virtue to be identical with the ability to enjoy (cf., the doctrine of eudemonism - states that the major goal of living should be the achievement of happiness). Epicurus defined philosophy as the art of making life happy and strictly subordinated metaphysics to ethics, naming pleasure as the highest, and only, good. Thus ancient hedonistic theory was expressed in two ways the cruder form proposed by Aristippus, who asserted that pleasure was achieved by the complete gratification of all one's sensual desires, and the more refined form of Epicurus, who accepted the primacy of pleasure but equated it with the absence of pain, and taught that it could best be attained through the rational...

Siegfried M Pueschel MD PhD Jd Mph

Like many expectant parents, my wife and I had been looking forward to the happy event of the birth of a healthy baby. Our dreams, however, soon were shattered when we found out that our son had Down syndrome. After this initial traumatic experience, our profound sadness and despair were soon transformed into joy and true happiness because Chris' smiles and his pleasant personality conquered our hearts, and thus we started to celebrate

Overjustification And Motives To

Note that this research highlights one of the features of self-perception theory that perhaps has not been emphasized sufficiently in the earlier chapters Feelings are not derived solely from behaviors. Rather, the feelings represent a kind of interpretation of both the behavior and the context in which it occurs. Or, more directly, the content of feelings, what the feeling is about, is the relationship between action and context. Smiling when uncoerced may be happiness, but the same smile in response to a photographer's request is not happy. Gazing into another's eyes with no

Lotzes Theory Of Local Signs

In general, two contemporary notions of love that may, or may not, carry sexual connotations are internal feelings of strong liking affection for some specific thing or person, and enduring sentiments toward a person providing a desire to be with that person and a concern for the happiness, welfare, and satisfactions of that person. An earlier conception of love, however, seemed strongly to imply a sexual component a feeling or sentiment of attachment toward some person, often growing out of sexual attraction, relations, or situations, and exhibiting a great diversity of psychological and physiological manifestations cf., the Coolidge effect - named after the 30th American president John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) and based, perhaps fictitiously, on a semi-salacious joking interchange (concerning the mating sexual behavior of roosters) between Coolidge and his wife - refers to the high continuous sexual performance shown by males of many species for extended...

Freuds Theory Of Withumor

Lief tension-release theory, but his approach is more complex and filled with many more diverse psychodynamic mechanisms than are found in previous relief theories of humor. In his theoretical viewpoint, Freud distinguishes among three kinds of laughter situations wit jokes, humor, and the comic, where each type of situation involves a savings of psychic energy that is available for a given task but is not needed, subsequently, for that purpose. Thus, according to Freud's humor theory, the superfluous energy is that which is discharged via the muscular movements of laughter, and in the joking situation, the energy saved is that which would normally be used to repress sexual or hostile thoughts and feelings. In Freud's release economy humor theory - involving the principle of economy of psychic expenditure - the situation of wit joking, like dreaming, functions as a safety valve for forbidden thoughts and feelings, and when the person expresses what is inhibited normally, the energy of...

Learning Principles and Behavioral Psychology

The second level of disorder is best described as quiet desperation (as opposed to the state of loud desperation in Level 1). The central problem at this level is avoidance of emotions and any environmental cues associated with them. A good example would be a patient with post-traumatic stress disorder. The goal of Stage 2 DBT is to increase the patient's ability to experience emotions without trauma. Level 3 disorders are best described as problematic patterns in living that interfere with goals. Thus, treatment at this stage focuses on achieving ordinary happiness and a stable sense of self-respect. Finally, the fourth level of disorder refers to those individuals who have a lingering sense of incompleteness despite the fact that they are otherwise satisfied with their lives. The goals of Stage 4 DBT include developing the capacity for sustained joy via psychological insight, spiritual practices, and an expanded awareness of oneself.

The History of Ethical Theories

We may not use or mistreat other people as a means either to our own happiness or to that of other people, and various forms of moral intuitionism make similar claims (1964). Intuitionists typically differ from Kant in holding that there are several independent, fundamental moral requirements (e.g., to keep promises, not to harm others, to tell the truth). But they agree with Kant that moral obligation is not just a matter of good consequences for an individual agent or for sentient beings generally. Thus even though deontologists such as Kant and, in the twentieth century, W. D. Ross, have definite views about human well-being, they do not think of moral goodness and moral obligation as rooted in facts about human well-being (or the well-being of sentient beings generally) and here a comparison with Judeo-Christian religious thought seems not inappropriate. In religious thinking, the Ten Commandments are not morally binding through some connection to the well-being or happiness of...

Personality Differences by Gender

They are encouraged to be soft-spoken and reticent, and to trust other women more than men. Boys are encouraged to be proud, almost boastful of their achievements, and to seek help from others in fulfilling their goals. Nepalis are generally friendly and helpful to strangers, and they regard the guest to be an honorable person. Public displays of aggression and other expressions of anger and hostility are discouraged, yet husbands' verbal and physical abuse of wives is not considered irregular until it becomes repeatedly violent. Other emotions that are publicly acceptable for both men and women include sadness and despair, pain and discomfort, and happiness and joy. Coveting others' good fortune is thought a form of flattery, though the fortunate also conceal some forms of prosperity, such as land and beautiful children, as they fear the curses of the less fortunate. Individual personalities may well override cultural stereotypes of gender-based personalities.

Relative Status of Men and Women

On the other hand, men are highly dependent on women for their domestic well-being (Holtzman, 2002). Women feed men and provide men with children through their sexuality, which they control to a great extent. It is not uncommon to encounter very thin men whose wives have been withholding food partially or utterly from them. A husband's recourses are limited, since men who complain risk being perceived as putting their own stomachs above the needs of their family. Similarly, women frequently engage in surreptitious extramarital affairs, giving birth to children not sired by their husbands. These children will be raised in the settlement, except in rare cases, directly affecting men's happiness, prestige, and well-being.

The Ethics of Transgender Interventions

Some commentators object to gender interventions for adults on the grounds that medical interventions violate the natural law principle of bodily integrity. However, other commentators working within the same tradition have defended medical interventions on the grounds that they protect psychic health (Springer). It is also possible to argue on utilitarian grounds that if psychiatry has no meaningful treatment for cross-gendered identities, gender interventions can help people achieve happiness. Even commentators who defend a pathological interpretation of cross-gender identities agree that the most reliable conclusion is that the overwhelming majority of post-operative transsexuals are content with their decision to undergo sex reassignment (Green and Blanchard, p. 1660). Utilitarian ethics not only advocates the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, as in the philosopher John Stuart Mill's formulation, it also asserts the liberty principle, a principle of...

Are Behaviors Sufficient To Produce Feelings

The most distinctive, most disputed premise of self-perception theory is that behaviors come first and produce the feelings. The direct empirical prediction of this premise is that if we can manipulate the behaviors, then the feelings will follow. Exploring this premise, a wide variety of behaviors have been manipulated, including facial expressions, postures, patterns of gaze and of breathing, hand holding, levels of sympathetic arousal, speeches, essays, various instrumental actions, ease of processing of stimuli, and the amount and fluency with which material comes to mind when remembering. These behaviors have been shown to affect emotional feelings, including anger, happiness, sadness, disgust, guilt, fear, and romantic attraction, as well as feelings of liking and disliking, confidence, pride, boredom, desire or wanting, familiarity, and realness. Clearly we have a very broad sample of different kinds of behaviors and of different feelings, and in every case the evidence is that...

Behavioral Genetics and Eugenics Contemporary Ethical Concerns

Product of very complex interactions among many genes as well as environmental factors, all of which are very poorly understood. Nobody knows which genes, in what way, to what degree, and at what point in development yield the neural capacities that establish a range of intellectual abilities. This is true whether one's concerns are with happiness, aggressiveness, schizophrenia, or addiction (Hamer Beckwith and Alper). Furthermore, if society's legitimate social goals include shaping human behavior in various ways, there also are available as tools a very large range of social practices and medical interventions.

Behavioral Genetics and Eugenics Some Ethical Guidelines

Reversibility is the third criterion the Nuffield Council emphasizes. It is difficult to imagine that anyone would want to be less intelligent, less happy, vulnerable to addiction, or more prone to violence. However, if researchers engage in behaviorally oriented genetic alterations, they may overshoot the mark An individual could end up experiencing feelings of happiness in socially inappropriate situations.

Theoretical Bases

FAP stems from the psychology known as radical behaviorism proposed by Psychologist B. F Skinner. Many readers may erroneously associate Skinner with a narrow theory used for explaining lever pressing by rats in experimental chambers. In fact, Skinner attempted to show how contingencies of reinforcement enter into the understanding of fundamental human processes such as perception, sense of self, identity, beliefs, language, poetry, happiness, personality, love, and creativity.

The Privacy of Mental Objects

The feelings are not just about the behaviors, however. The feelings are actually at a level above the level of the behavior and the context. That is, feelings consist precisely of the relationship between the behavior, such as a smile, and the context, such as meeting a friend. A smile in that context is happiness. An approving speech in the context of an apparent free expression of opinion is a positive attitude. A feeling of fluency in the absence of any other explanation is familiarity. However, just as the behaviors are public, so, too, are the contexts. They are, after all, no more than social systems and settings. Now we can turn to examine the processes such as thinking, imagining, remembering, puzzling, and solving, all of which seem to involve a different kind of privacy. When I wonder if I am actually foolish or happy, my answer seems to be derived entirely from the self-perception of the complex patterns of my public behavior. I may not be any better at recognizing those...

Chemicals Increasing Arousal

In these studies (Marshall & Zimbardo, 1979 Rogers & Deckner, 1975), subjects were injected with adrenalin and placed in conditions that should have aroused euphoria or at least happiness. Instead, participants reported increased negative emotions. In company with similar effects with a different, hypnotic manipulation of arousal (Maslach, 1979), these results led Marshall and Zimbardo, as well as Maslach, to propose that arousal had a negative bias and was experienced as unpleasant, even when the situation and its attendant cognitions implied a happy experience. Other studies manipulated arousal by other kinds of drugs, such as ephedrine or caffeine, that have less powerful effects than epinephrine. The results have been mixed at best (Manstead & Wagner, 1981 Reisenzein, 1983, 1994). These studies vary on a multitude of dimensions, so any conclusion about the differences between the studies that do and do not support Schachter's theory must be tentative. However, it does...

Emotions Theorieslaws Of

Theory - holds that residual arousal from one setting may be attributed mistakenly to a subsequent emotional setting and, consequently, increasing the emotional response also, cf., generalization principles and the isopathic principle, also called the homeopathic principle, which states that a symptom may be relieved by the simple expression of the emotion that has been repressed, such as the mitigation of guilt - caused by hate - via an overt demonstration of hate). The definitions of terms in the second category amount to minitheories of emotion, where there seems to be consensus on at least four generally important factors for study (1) instigating stimuli - both exogenous (external stimuli such as environmental events) and endogenous (internal stimuli such as images or thoughts) (2) physiological correlates - general biological systems (such as central and autonomic nervous system events) and specific action patterns (such as hypotha-lamic-thalamic interactions, that yield...

Coping And Adjustment

In addition to dealing with the losses associated with the illness process, coping with the day-to-day problems that arise is important to individuals faced with this stressor. Many problems can present as a result of changing roles, financial status, medical treatment, and decreasing physical health. Lazurus and Folkman (1984) have proposed that there are two primary forms of coping emotion-focused and problem-focused coping. Although it may be tempting to view these forms of coping as separate and distinct, the line between them is blurred and there exists a reciprocal relationship between the two. Coping has been found to be associated with four types of emotions disgust and anger, pleasure and happiness, confidence, and, to a lesser extent, worry and fear (Folkman & Lazurus, 1988). Cognitive-behavioral interventions are aimed at improving both problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

Ethics of Medical Practice

The activities of the physician (vaidya) were closely linked with the doctrine of the three aims of Hindu life (Caraka, i. 30. 29 Vagbhafa, i. 2. 29). Viewed as complementary, rather than contradictory, they guide appropriate behavior. By relieving suffering and adding to the sum of human happiness, a physician (assumed in the texts to be a man) fulfills the first aim, carrying out his religious duty from the generous fees of his wealthy patients he achieves the second aim, riches while the third aim, pleasure, is achieved by the satisfaction he obtains, first, from a high reputation as a healer and, second, from the knowledge that he has cured many people whom he loves and respects.

Behavioral Analysis

These behavioral or conditioning approaches to nocturnal enuresis have been criticized on the basis that they overlook enuresis as a symptom of sleep or underlying problems that, even though the child may become dry at night, will probably manifest itself in some other fashion. This has frequently been referred to as a symptom substitution theory. Even though this theory seems to make some sense, it has not proven valid. In fact, children have been noted to be happier, less anxious, and more likely to assume responsibility therefore acting in a mature and confident fashion once the bed-wetting has been resolved. A small minority of patients have reported anxiety, bad dreams, and other emotional responses when first exposed to the bell-and-pad. However, these problem responses generally diminish as treatment continues. These emotional responses, in fact, may be likened to conditioned emotional responses or the extinction burst phenomenon frequently observed in the conditioning learning...

Companion Animals and Children

A benchmark study conducted by Roger Mugford on the therapeutic value of pets for the elderly found that older people (who live independently) who were given a budgerigar had significantly improved social attitudes and appeared to be happier than those subjects who were in the control group (after five months). Furthermore, animals living within the home of people with terminal illnesses or animals visiting those with similar constraints appear to lessen the individual's fears, their sense of loneliness, and stress levels. Similar findings have been reported in studies evaluating the impact of an animal on the lives of people with terminal illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. A synthesis from these studies suggests that these individuals seemed to feel more in control of their lives when they were able to take care of an animal. Taking care of the animal and being able to hold and caress it seemed to cause them to focus less on their illness.

Well Being Assessment Concepts and Definitions

Animal welfare well-being assessment is often criticized by scientists as being anthropomorphic. Anthropomorphism is the ascribing of human traits to nonhumans (e.g., animals or inanimate objects). Most scientists have historically not been comfortable with assessing animal happiness or pleasure. Still, there is a need to objectively measure and assess animal well-being. From this need, the science of farm animal welfare was born. Animal cognitive experiences, including their feelings, are included in this science along with measures of physiological status (endocrine and immune status), behavior, growth, and reproduction.

Miscarriage and Other Early Pregnancy Loss

This chapter is dedicated to those of you who have experienced early pregnancy loss. You are part of a distinct group of women who have felt the happiness and joy of conceiving, only to have your hopes and dreams shattered by the loss of your pregnancy. What a challenging ordeal you've endured. Not only have you had to go through the physical pains and hormonal swings, but you've also faced the emotional ups and downs of losing your baby during the early stages of pregnancy.

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Women value and are valued for their reproductive capacity, which is seen as a source of unique power. The ideal woman was primarily a mother, and secondarily a faithful wife and hard worker at home, in the fields, and in the performance of ritual offerings. Mothers are perceived to be the emotional heart of the family, and are held informally responsible for the health and happiness of the relationships therein. Their principal duties are domestic tasks associated with cooking, washing, and housework, childcare, including extended breast-feeding (up to 4 years), the provision of clothing and food, and moral teaching. Mothers usually find ways to combine income-producing work with mothering and domestic work, and bear a heavy burden of multiple roles (peran ganda domestic, ritual, and productive work).

Gender over the Life Cycle

A girl learned at a very young age that she would eventually marry and move to another household. To a large extent she was raised to become the wife of a stranger and daughter-in-law of another family. Marriage was the most important event in a Chinese woman's life it entailed the transformation of a young girl to a mature woman. A successful marriage would provide the woman with security and happiness.

Theoretical Explanations Of The Effects Of Behaviors On Feelings

Individual differences in the effects of self-perception manipulations are consistent across a wide variety of manipulated behaviors and feelings. Since many self-perception experiments share the same logical shape and produce logically identical results, we would naturally assume that similar processes were involved. The individual difference results strongly reinforce that assumption, because they establish empirical links among the effects of the different kinds of emotional behaviors. The same process seems to lead from mutual gaze to romantic love, from a smile to a feeling of happiness, from increases in arousal to feelings of anger or fear, and from changes in posture or appearance to feelings of confidence. Clearly, any theory about the effects of behavior on feelings needs to be able to account for these consistencies across kinds of feeling and kinds of behavior.

Health Insurance Social Justice and Rights

During the second half of the twentieth century, aggregate expenditures for healthcare rose at such a dramatic rate that by the 1980s, cost control in healthcare became a central issue for reformers. However, the question of setting limits makes debate about a right to healthcare politically difficult. Unlike rights to liberty or the pursuit of happiness, which entail noninterference by others, a right to healthcare entails paying someone to provide costly services. By 1990, the need to speak of a limited right was clear to many leaders, although negative reaction to the idea of rationing healthcare led many to deny its necessity, and how to define limits was hotly debated (Strosberg). In 1989, the state of Oregon intensified the debate when it organized a unique social experiment to guarantee coverage to uninsured persons while setting limits on what would be covered based on a prioritized list of healthcare services (Garland, 1992, 1994, 2001).

Leslie Walker Hirsch MEd

It is a wonderful, exciting time for people with disabilities, their families, and the professionals who support them. Many medical advances, educational techniques, and cultural changes have arisen in the last few years. These changes support the hopes and dreams for a satisfying and happy life for individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and their families. People of all ages with DS can and do enjoy an array of relationships with family members, friends, acquaintances, community members, and even sweethearts and spouses. Social development education and sexuality education lay the groundwork for the relationship opportunities that enrich lives and for the choices that maintain personal safety. The fourth component of sexuality has to do with relationships. It's my opinion that finding, cultivating, and maintaining good relationships are the single most difficult human task. It is also a task that affects overall happiness. We cannot live well without relationships. There is little joy...

Perfectionism

Helped shape much of Western moral theory. Concerning the latter first, Aristotle accepts the commonplace notion that the good we humans seek is happiness, but he argues that the true happiness we seek is not wealth, fame, or even pleasure in abundance but, rather, the possession and exercise of those virtues (those excellences) that are uniquely human. Thus happiness, in his view, is characterized as an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue. Those are happiest who optimally express their humanity in how they live and, in doing so, take pleasure in being the human beings they are.

Experimenter Bias

None of the subjects in this research recognized that the writing positions created expressions of emotion, or that the purpose of the research involved their emotional feelings. In an elaboration of the Strack et al. procedure, Soussignan (2002) found that more intense, Duchenne smiles produced stronger feelings of happiness than did less intense, and arguably less genuine-seeming, smiles.

Relation to Utility

Beneficence has natural affinities with a principle of utility. Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, for example, claim that promoting good always involves a calculation of what harms might also be incurred. A principle of utility is a way to assess harms and benefits. In his Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill asserted in 1863 that the measure of good by which all actions are to be judged is whether they promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Mill saw his principle of utility as a systematic expression of the teaching of Jesus, for example, as embodied in the golden rule. When defined through Mill's utility principle, beneficence becomes vulnerable to two criticisms frequently leveled at utilitarianism. The first is the problem of adequacy. A focus on beneficence as the promotion of happiness, to the exclusion of other kinds of goods and obligations, seems too narrow. People value things other than happiness, however broadly defined. Promoting the happiness of others can...

Death Of Animals

Some animal rights* advocates accept this common distinction between killing humans and killing animals. These animal rights advocates are particularly concerned with the suffering that animals endure and with how we can reduce that suffering. Utilitarian philosophers (see UTILITARIANISM), such as Peter Singer, who believe that moral concern should be focused on minimizing suffering and maximizing happiness in the world, take this position. However, they go on to emphasize that when large numbers of animals are routinely killed, it is not a painless process. The animals who are slaughtered for food or fur are not killed painlessly. They feel pain* when being shot, cut, gassed, or clubbed to death. Animals also smell the blood of the animals killed just before them, and this frightens them, causing them distress.

Rights

A right to be born healthy would most reasonably be thought of as a negative right. No one should deliberately do what will result in harm to a child, or do what poses an inordinate or undue risk to its life or health. It would be more problematic to claim that a being that does not exist in some requisite sense has a right to be given a life. However, if it is to have a life, then one might well argue that it should if possible have a life with decent chances for development and happiness. One might ground this in notions of equal opportunity and justice, that each person should have a fair chance to develop and to compete for access to life's goods. Given the risks that are associated with animal cloning, grave questions can be raised about human cloning in this regard.

Pleasure And Love

The importance of our relationships may come to supersede simpler pleasures, so that the happiness we seek in mutuality may take priority over pleasures experienced more narrowly. According to Marilyn French, Mutual pleasures are the sacred core of life food, body warmth, love, and sex. These things are sacred because they are necessary, because they confer pleasure in the giving and the receiving so that it is impossible to say who is giving and who is receiving. They satisfy the profoundest needs, and in their satisfying, satisfy two. Some of our most profound pleasures are grounded in mutuality and can only be realized in love. Love, then, draws on many pleasures sensual, aesthetic, mutual, and selfish. Only by understanding the complexities of these can we grasp the lovers' willingness to undergo hardships or pain. The resulting happiness or pleasure is of a different order from pleasure as it is commonly defined, one that is experienced as more fundamental, necessary even, to the...

Metaphysical

Although laughter appears to be associated with happiness and joy, some have taken the position that laughter arises precisely from the experience of suffering. The philosopher Nietzsche, for example, argued that humor was invented precisely because of the extent to which humans suffer. This view is echoed in existentialist philosophy. For the most part, though, humor has not been taken seriously in classical philosophical thought in the Western tradition, which has tended to regard it as irrational, irresponsible, and frivolous. In contrast, Eastern traditions, such as Hindu, Buddhist, and Sufi worldviews, regard humor as an appropriate reaction in the face ofthe vicissitudes of death, disease, and aging humor here is seen as an insight that all human aspirations are ultimately comical and that wisdom ensues from that insight.

Case Illustration

Kimiko had moved to the United States with her husband at the age of 23. Kimiko's reasons for beginning psychotherapy were depressed feelings and a lack of Jibun (me as a target of cognitive intentionality) or Jiko-ishi Ki (self-awareness). This lack showed itself as (1) inability to make choices when she had to express a personal preference (2) her feeling that there was nothing to which she would like to fully devote here-self and (3) her sense that she was only able to pursue her own happiness indirectly by doing things for others that resulted in their happiness. Kimiko underwent 100 sessions of psychoanalytic psychotherapy with a Japanese psychoanalyst in the United States. A general theme of Kimiko's therapy was her discovery of self. Transference issues included a desire for a responsive, affectionately strong father. This desire was conditioned by Kimiko's relationship with her father who had been reticent or absent. There was also an important maternal transference based on...

Predation

Humans, other animals should not be predators. First, the animals who are killed for food suffer both the fear of being hunted and the pain* of being killed, often in gruesome ways. These animals also suffer the loss of the rest of their lives, which could have been happy lives. Since one of the basic goals of one view of morality (see UTILITARIANISM) is to reduce suffering* and increase happiness, the world would be a morally better place without predation. The second counterargument is stronger. Stopping predation would not reduce suffering and increase happiness. The only way to stop predation would be to kill all the predators. Also, the populations of many animals previously killed by predators would then increase dramatically. These extra animals would then die of disease and starvation thus they would suffer.

Recent Developments

Finally, virtue ethics has been undergoing a considerable revival. In a 1958 article, Elizabeth Anscombe argued that notions like moral obligation are bankrupt without the assumption of God (or someone else) as a lawgiver, whereas concepts of character excellence or virtue and of human flourishing can arise, without such assumptions, from within a properly conceived moral psychology. This challenge was taken up by philosophers interested in exploring the possibility that the notions of good character and motivation and of living well may be primary in ethics, with notions like right, wrong, and obligation taking a secondary or derivative place or perhaps even dropping out altogether. Such virtue ethics does not, however, abandon ethics' traditional task of telling us how to live, since, in fact, ideals of good character and motivation can naturally lead to views about how it is best to treat others and to promote our own character and happiness. Rather, the newer virtue ethics sought...

Musical Emotion

Figure 9 Consonant vs dissonant music perception. (A) (Top) Excerpts from the most consonant version (major triads DissO) and the most dissonant version (13ths with flat 9ths Diss5) of the musical stimuli presented during PET scanning. (Bottom) Line graphs demonstrating averaged subject ratings following scans for each of the six versions Diss0-Diss5. Note that dissonance was related to judgments of pleasantness unpleasantness but not happiness sadness. (B) Regions demonstrating significant rCBF correlations with dissonance level, parametrically varied from consonant to most dissonant in five steps by altering the harmonic accompaniment to a novel tonal melody. Correlations are shown as t-statistic images superimposed on corresponding averaged MRI scans. (a-c) Positive correlations in rCBF with increasing dissonance in (a) right parahippocampal gyrus in saggital section and (b) coronal section and (c) right precuneus. (d-f) Negative correlations with increasing dissonance (equivalent...

Plastic Surgery

These studies 75 of the parents and nearly all of the surgeons were very satisfied with the results (Lemperle and Radu, 1980 Olbrisch, 1982). However, later studies began to include peers and teacher s(Arndt 1986). Subjects were shown a mixed series of photographs of children with Down syndrome. The photographs were in random order and included children both before and after plastic surgery. Subjects were asked to judge the appearance of the children in the photographs with respect to characteristics of Down syndrome, whether the subject would choose the person as a friend, and other subjective impressions. The subjects of these studies displayed no preference for the photographs of children who had had plastic surgery, in fact, the postsurgery photographs were found to be less attractive. In addition, there has been no evidence that children who have undergone plastic surgery have achieved greater skills, integration, or happiness than those without surgery.

Ambivalent Surrender

Yet, unfortunately, such happiness can be short-lived, the radical surrender of self ultimately offending both lover and beloved. Insofar as he surrenders himself, the lover can be depleted if the beloved comes to devalue or scorn him. What began as a quest for transcendence can end in the impoverishment of servitude or even slavery. Or, as sometimes happens, the lover discovers the beloved to be less than a god and becomes disenchanted. This is the fundamental mechanism in one of the most commonly observed love relationships, the see-saw affair, in which first one and then the other of the lovers appears unilaterally head-over-heels in love with an unresponsive partner. Only when the lovesick partner begins to withdraw does the other dare yield to his own impulse to surrender. These love affairs appear peculiar to outsiders, but it is the very lack of simultaneity that allows the lovers turns at surrender. The participants themselves appear to suffer, but they are clearly in the grip...

Ethical Aspects

There are also attitudes inherent in African sexuality that not only permit circumcision but foster it. In most African cultures, sexuality is regarded as a gift to be used for the procreation of the human species, and any public or even private display of sex-related feeling or enjoyment is seen as debasing this gift. In some communities, only a token expression of the sexual self is permitted. The issue of sexual fulfillment is unimportant. Thus, controls over the sexual behavior of women are designed to curb female sexual desire and response and to encourage disregard for the sexual aspects of their lives. The removal of the organ or organs responsible for sexual stimulation is therefore taken as necessary for the fixation of certain values within the community and for ensuring the acceptance of rigid standards of sexual conduct. Thus, the underlying concern of those who defend the institution of female circumcision is that women's sexuality will be corrupted if women are allowed...

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