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Energy Flow and Functional Food Webs

A central goal of food web research is to produce predictive models, especially those that can be used to assess human-induced impacts on food web structure (see Winemiller and Layman, Chapter 1.2). One of the most acute environmental problems in Venezuela is overexploitation of fisheries (Rodriguez, 2000). In the Cinaruco River, illegal commercial netting is a relatively new development, but is becoming increasingly intense (Hoeinghaus et al., 2003b). Populations of many large-bodied fish taxa, including C. temensis and S. kneri, are in decline, which will likely lead to shifts in food web structure. Employing both energy flow (stable isotope and stomach contents analyses) and functional experimental approaches allow the most comprehensive assessment of effects induced by this netting activity. FIGURE 2 Hypotheses of primary paths of energy flow in the Cinaruco River (A) natural feeding pathway (B) feeding pathway following removal of Cichla spp. and Semaprochilodus kneri by illegal...

Healing Illness

When illness occurs, Orthodox Christianity affirms an ethical duty to struggle against sickness, which if unaddressed can lead to death. The moral requirement to care for the health of the body indicates it is appropriate to use healing methods that will enhance health and maintain life. Two means are used concurrently spiritual healing and different forms of medicine. The first is embodied in nearly all services of the church, in particular, the sacrament of healing, or holy unction. There is also a continuing tradition of multiple forms of prayer and saintly intercessions for the healing of body and soul. The church does not see spiritual healing as exclusive nor as competitive with scientific medicine. In the fourth century, Saint John Chrysostom, one of the great church fathers, frequently referred to his need for medical attention and medications. In his letters to Olympias, he not only speaks of his own use of medications but advises others to use them as well. Saint Basil,...

Ulrich Brose Eric L Berlow and Neo D Martinez

Food webs traditionally specify the structure of who eats whom among species within a habitat or ecosystem. A yet-to-be realized ideal is a food web model that includes the quantity consumed and the ecological relevance of every trophic interaction among all species within a community. Far short of this ideal, current food web models provide partial yet critically important information about species' extinction risks and relative abundances by describing the dynamics of energy flow and consumer species' biomasses (Yodzis, 1998 Borrvall et al., 2000). This exclusive focus on feeding relationships or trophic interactions enables models of complex food webs (Brose et al., 2003 Kondoh, 2003a Williams and Martinez, 2004a) to also incorporate exploitative and 'apparent' competition (Holt et al., 1994 Holt and Lawton, 1994) among heterotrophs. However, this focus ignores similar interactions among autotroph producers or basal species consuming abiotic resources (e.g., nutrients, light, etc.)...

Gender and Religion

If Abelam women are the primary custodians of children, men control ritual and religion. Women have secrets related to birth, but men have ritual secrets. Each gender is excluded from the specialized knowledge of the other. A supernatural life force called ngwaal (soul substance) is thought to animate nature. This force is personified in ancestral spirits called ngwaalndu (literally, spirit-person or grandfather-person ), normally male. Initiates are introduced to the ngwaalndu in the tambaran cult, the series of male initiation stages described above, from which women are barred. Each clan has an important ngwaalndu associated with it. Other lesser supernatural beings, such as waale (water spirits), are equally known to both genders. Sorcerers (kwisndu), male magicians who learn to control ngwaal, and kutakwa, female witches who harm others, often involuntarily, are also thought to exist. It is thought that, when the world began people lived in a hole in the ground near the Sepik...

Cellular Respiration and Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP is the standard unit in which the energy released during respiration is stored. ATP is an instant source of energy within the cell. It is mobile and transports energy to wherever energy-consuming processes are occurring within the cell. The energy is released by the dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP, which can then be rephosphorylated to ATP by being coupled to the processes of respiration. ATP is found in all living cells and can be thought of as a universal energy transducer.

Possession Religions are Increasing in Numbers

The great increase in the reporting of the phenomena in question is likely to be due to both a growth of interest and awareness by researchers, but also to an actual increase in incidence. This in turn seems to be partly due to displacement diffusion of populations, and spread to others, partly due to health crises (including both traditional healing and

Discussion And Conclusions

Quences of these processes in real systems. Testing these predictions in experimentally tractable ecosystems has yet to be done and is now a pressing goal. Identifying experimental communities or ecosystems, whether terrestrial, freshwater, or marine, that can be discretely manipulated and whole system responses followed will be difficult, but surely not impossible. The approach we have outlined here has still only been tested using two empirically documented food webs. It is important to test the validity of these results using other similarly well-resolved food webs (e.g., Tuesday Lake, Cohen et al., 2003). If such consistent relationships can be falsifiably demonstrated in a greater range of systems, then perhaps a general understanding of the interplay between food web composition (species identity), structure (food web topology), and ecosystem functioning (energy flow, process rates, and stability) can realistically be achieved. We envisage that, potentially,

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Another treatment reserved for boys is something of a punishment but more of a healing ritual. A boy who consistently wets the bed is carried from house to house on the back of a maternal uncle so that people can pour small amounts of water on him. Either girls do not wet the bed often or, if they do, no fuss is made about it.

Wyatt F Cross Amy D Rosemond Jonathan P Benstead Sue L Eggert and J Bruce Wallace

From the perspective of ecosystem energetics, animals are often regarded as relatively unimportant. Loss of energy with each trophic transfer results in minor contributions by higher trophic levels to the total energetic budget of a given system (Lindeman, 1942 Teal, 1962 Fisher and Likens, 1973). Increasingly, however, ecologists are recognizing that animals can play very prominent roles in the transformation, translocation, and cycling of essential elements such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) (Kitchell et al., 1979 Seastedt and Crossley, 1984 Jones et al., 1994 Andersen, 1997 Elser and Urabe, 1999 Strayer et al., 1999 Wallace and Hutchens, 2000 Crowl et al., 2001 Vanni, 2002 Hall et al., 2003). In many cases, the importance of these functional roles far exceeds that of animal biomass in ecosystem energy budgets, and can have major consequences for energy flow, nutrient cycling, and food web dynamics (Power et al., 1996b Wootton and Downing, 2003). In extreme cases,...

ORigin Botanical facts

Ginger is believed to be native to South China or India, where it has been cultivated since ancient times. The earliest recorded mention of ginger appears in Chinese writings. According to the Pen Tsao Ching (Classics ofHerbs), written by Shen Nung around 3000 B.C., ginger eliminates body odor and puts a person in touch with the spiritual realm. In ancient India, ginger was believed to cleanse the body spiritually. Ginger also was used to preserve food and treat digestive problems. As in India, the ancient Greeks used ginger for digestive problems by eating ginger wrapped in bread after large meals. Eventually, ginger was added to the bread dough, and the product became known as gingerbread. The Romans also used ginger as a digestive aid. Arab traders

Effects of Soil Fauna on Ecosystem Processes

Fore, that the decomposer soil fauna has been viewed as a major driving factor for microbial activity in soils (Coleman et al. 1983 Anderson 1987 Wolters 1991). It has been estimated that the direct contribution of soil animals to energy flow in terrestrial systems is low, usually

Health and Social Stratification

One could argue, quite cogently, that social stratification clearly delineates human activity and behavior on multiple levels in a society. Linking social stratification to health issues constitutes a structural approach to understanding health issues at the local and global, public and private sector levels. It also means understanding the ways in which patients' and health care providers' choices are circumscribed (Anagnost, 1995 Morsy, 1995 Navarro, 1981 Pearce, 1995 Singer, 1990). At the individual level, as Gramsci (1971) argues, the healer, like the priest, is a mediator between the elite and the non-elite, and health and disease are defined by the elite for the purposes of controlling the non-elite. Others have described healing systems as the meeting ground between the elites and the proletariat (Waitzkin, 1979) and as the locus of hegemony (Csordas, 1988). Medicine often defines the Other as diseased or unhygienic, and in doing so, places it under medical control, the realm...

Western Religious Thought Death in Biblical Thought

Against the mortuary cults, the Yahwists presented a view of human nature and destiny that undercut all ancestor worship and necromancy. In the Yahwist creation myth, the protohuman couple was created from the soil and destined to return to the soil (Gen. 3 19). Human beings are material bodies animated by a life force (nephesh or ruach) residing in the breath or the blood. Death comes when the life force leaves the body and returns to Yahweh. Thus, a common fate awaits all persons upon death master and slave, rich and poor, good and bad all descend beneath the earth to the place of the dead called She'ol, where they continue a shadowy existence, but only for a brief period of time. This land of the dead was variously described as an awful pit shrouded in darkness or a walled city covered with dust. Although reminiscent of the Mesopotamian underworld, the Yahwist notion of She'ol excluded any divine ruler of the infernal regions. Neither a god of the underworld nor Yahweh himself was...

Ecosystem As Object Or Device

We began with the important point that to get an energy flow you need a source sink gradient, and to measure a flow you need a device of some kind which you can standardize in order to get repeatable values and values which can be meaningfully compared between prey and between systems. Whilst laboratory equipment may provide the standardized measurement of plant parts and of herbivory (and by extension of detritus and detri-tivory), there is no immediate device that simulates carnivory other than

Stefan C Dekker Stefan Scheu Dagmar Schrter Heikki Setl Maciej Szanser and Theo P Traas

In the last decades, several soil research programs focused on the interaction between soil organisms, plants, and detritus in agricultural soils. Central in this research were the study of nutrient flows and cycling, as well as the availability of nutrients for crop productivity. Soil ecologists were especially interested in energy flow and the structure of food webs. With these foci in mind, food web models were constructed. One example is the soil Detrital Food Web (DFW) model for grass-prairie ecosystems (sensu Hunt et al., 1987 de Ruiter et al., 1993a). The model analyzes the relationships between community structure and ecosystem processes for different agricultural (de Ruiter et al., 1993b) and forest soils (Schr ter et al., 2003). For some situations, model results were verified at the level of overall respiration and nitrogen mineralization rates (de Ruiter et al., 1994). However, verification on overall respiration and mineralization fluxes only gives confidence in part of...

Modern Medical Technology and Ethics

The protection of life covers the whole life span. The Orthodox church has always had a special respect and appreciation for the aged. Industrial society, with its smaller, nuclear families, has tended to isolate the aged from the rest of society. The aging themselves ought not to accept such marginalization passively. They should continue to live active and fulfilling lives, with as much independence of movement and self-directed activity as possible. Spiritually, growth in the life of Christ continues to be important. Repentance, prayer, communion with God, service to others, and loving care for others are important in this and every age bracket. for it when, according to the best medical judgment available, a person is struggling to die. If a person is clinically dead but his or her vital organs are kept functioning by mechanical means, turning off the machines is not considered euthanasia. Until the determination of clinical death, both physician and family should seek...

Provisional Expectancieshypotheses Theory See Tolmans Theory

PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC AND UNCONVENTIONAL THEORIES. The term pseudoscience refers to a system of theories and methods that claims falsely to be scientific, or is a system that is falsely regarded by some people to be scientific. The term pseudopsy-chology is an approach to psychology that employs unscientific, even fraudulent, methods in it investigations and the term unconventional theory (in particular, in psychology, in reference to therapeutic theoretical approaches) refers to those methods of treating mind, body, or mind-body interactions, that are not considered by the scientific and professional community to be mainstream approaches. Among the pseudoscientific theories methods that impact on, or challenge, scientific psychology are the following astrology (the belief that the location of the stars and planets at the time of one's conception and or birth influences their lives subsequently) biological rhythms biorhythms (periodic variations in one's physiological and psychological...

Craig A Layman Kirk O Winemiller D Albrey Arrington

Complexity and variability of ecosystems, especially in the tropics (e.g., rain forests, coral reefs, freshwater lotic systems), render obsolete simple solutions to describe how humans impact food webs. Yet this understanding is essential to help stem biodiversity loss and assess community- and ecosystem-level responses to human-induced habitat change (Chapin et al., 1998 McCann, 2000). Human impacts are especially difficult to assess in complex webs due to indirect (Wootton, 1993), diffuse (Yodzis, 2000), and emergent (Sih et al., 1998) effects. In this context, characterization of trophic dynamics (i.e., food web structure, energy flow) using multiple, complementary methodologies is most likely to lead to an understanding sufficient to derive useful predictions regarding effects of human-induced perturbations. analyses, (2) stomach contents analyses, and (3) functional experiments. Because of the recent emphasis on stable isotopes in food web research ( Post, 2002a Vanderklift and...

Anthropological Participation in Population Interventions

Anthropologists in Brazil believed that ORS should be introduced as a simple household procedure rather than as a hospital-based, medically controlled intervention (Nations et al. 1988). They considered how to introduce oral rehydration therapy in a simpler and more culturally sensitive fashion than the medicalized packets. The Northeast has one doctor for every 2000 patients, but it has one traditional healer for every 150 patients. So the anthropologists trained traditional healers to add salt and sugar in specified ratios to the medicinal teas they already offered their patients with diarrhea. The herbs included in the teas (often chamomile and peppermint) did not hinder the absorption of the liquid. With just slight modifications to their customary practices, the healers adapted familiar treatments to meet international standards.

African American Traditional Medicine

Grannies, herbalists, herb doctors, root doctors, and spiritual healers engaged to diagnose and treat conditions. Supernatural or magical illnesses caused by sorcery or voodoo, or rootwork that can hex an individual, require healers with supernatural powers (www.diversity accessed 8 2002). Today these healers rarely treat type 2 diabetes. African Americans generally rely on biomedicine although herbal home remedies and dietary precautions are employed along with insulin and oral medication. Worriation or stress has been stated as a cause of type 2 diabetes and its complications (Lieberman et al., 1996).

Gender over the Life Cycle

While the transition to adulthood was not ritualized for boys, girls went through an extended and formal period of transformation. At the onset of a girl's first period, she was isolated in a compartment at the rear of the family house or in a small house built near it. The first 8 days were frightening and difficult. She was allowed to eat or drink only twice during those days. While restrictions remained throughout her seclusion, little of it was as onerous. She was kept inside and required to stay quiet. In this place she could visit only with young girls and older women. During this period, which could range up to a year depending upon her rank, a girl was educated in the skills needed to be a successful woman. These included everyday work skills, proper demeanor, negotiation, and pride in self and clan. During this seclusion she was considered spiritually powerful and she was warned to be careful of her actions. Since she had to remain inside during the entire period, when she...

Ethnomedical Care and Treatment

Household remedies include many plant-based treatments. These usually are administered orally as liquids. This kind of medication would assist in the prevention of dehydration. In recent years, greater attention has been given to the potential efficacy of the preparations themselves, with the result that there is renewed respect for traditional medical knowledge. The use of rice water, for example, for fluid intake during diarrhea is a well-known home remedy. Biomedical practitioners initially reacted negatively to this nutrient-poor fluid. It is now understood that the large molecule starches in rice water are released gradually. This gradual release of starch reduces the risk of worsening the diarrhea through osmotic retention of fluids in the intestine. Many traditional healers encourage healing teas and fluids, sometimes accompanied by specialized prayers and rituals.

Chiropractic and Osteopathic Medicine

Osteopathic and chiropractic medicine provide interesting examples of the fate of alternative philosophical, religious, and ethical interpretations of healing in an age dominated by scientific medicine. Osteopathic medicine emerged from the healing philosophy of Andrew Taylor Still (1828-1917). A former spiritualist and mesmeric healer, Still developed techniques for manipulating vertebrae along the spine in ways that he thought removed obstructions to the free flow of the life-giving current that promotes health throughout the body. Still explained the healing principles of osteopathy (a term derived from two Greek words meaning suffering of the bones ) in overtly metaphysical terms that described the origin and nature of the life-giving current ultimately responsible for human well-being. His followers largely discarded the occult-sounding dimensions of Still's philosophy and instead insisted that osteopathic medical education be grounded in anatomy and scientific physiology. Thus,...

Switching Omnivory and Connectance

Asymptotic functional responses suggest that predator per capita effects (i.e., interaction strength) and population effects (i.e., energy flow between prey and predator populations) may depend on prey density. Similarly, switching among alternate prey species by predators (seasonally or spatially) implies variability in patterns of food web structure or connectance. Thus, both switching and saturation imply that patterns of energy flow, interaction strength and link structure, all central to structural food web approaches, are not constant over time a common assumption made when applying point estimates of these properties in more resolved models of food webs. Kondoh (2003a) showed that switching by adaptive foragers stabilized large and complex food webs similar in structure to those observed in nature. Though switching, onto-genetic diet shifts and even individual variability in diet preferences are well known behavioral attributes of a variety of predators, empirical measures of...

Reicherwheeler Effect

The Austrian-born American psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) formu lated a dissident psychoanalytic theory called the orgone theory, which is based on the assumption that a specific form of energy called orgone energy fills all space and accounts for all life (cf., bioenergetics theory - deals with the energy relationships in living organisms, and is a psychotherapeutic technique developed by the American psychiatrist Alexander Lowen (1910- ) and Reichenbach phenomenon - named after the German chemist Baron Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach (17881869) - refers to a force or emanation, called the od, odic, or odylic force that a sensitive person can, allegedly, see coming out of all matter this and N-rays and auras proved to be cases of self-deception). Reich argued that not only are patients' symptoms evidence of neurosis but their character structure itself may be neurotic. Reich called his therapeutic approach character analysis and he often elicited...

Applying an Integrated Cultural Epidemiological Approach

Mary, a mother of a 10-year-old boy with seizures who lived in a medium-sized town in Kenya, used different words to describe her ideas about epilepsy and how she sought treatment for him. Note her mention of a broad variety of health resources quite different from those mentioned in the Ecuadorian case. Also note the complex consultations with multiple practitioners when cures did not work as promised, as well as the perceived need to hide use of local traditional healers for fear of being accused of practicing witchcraft. We went to three traditional healers to cure him. The first one said the child had inherited the illness. He told us to take a chicken and a goat's head to him. We did. He slaughtered the chicken the same day before we left. I don't know whether he ate it or not. The second healer told us the child had inherited the illness. He asked for a chicken and a bird called chaluu so that he could exchange the illness with those things. The boy's father decided not to take...

Native American Traditional Medicine

Some Indian patients utilize traditional healers. The Indian Health Service estimates the use of traditional Indian medicine by tribes ranging from 70 to 90 depending on the age group (Carson-Henderson, 2002 Hollow, 1999). Within the Choctaw nation the traditional healers are called Chattah Alikchi or Choctaw Doctor. The alikchi occupies the role of a spiritual leader and is similar to a shaman. The alikchi deal with both spiritual and biological complaints. Among the Ojibway, healers are consulted on diabetes care. Healers provide herbal medicines said to be effective in controlling diabetes. Individuals taking these medicines must abstain from alcohol. Healers are described as gifted because of their

Hasan Aziz and Zarin Mogal

In many Southeast Asian countries, there is gender bias and females are discriminated. Because of culture bound beliefs women are not allowed to move out of their homes, even to seek treatment. It is the prerogative of the male member of the family to decide if her illness is worth a visit to a doctor or can be treated by a traditional healer or a local clergyman within the four walls of the house. Epilepsy is usually considered the work of the demons, due to some wrong doings of the female and she is de-possessed by gruesome methods of the local spiritual or traditional healer. Many equate epilepsy with insanity.25,30,33 In Zimbabwe, teachers too associate epilepsy with a type of insanity.35 Traditional beliefs have an important influence on the treatment seeking behavior of persons with epilepsy. There are people who hold both medical and traditional beliefs and seek both types of treatment.46,70,71 Multiple agencies are usually consulted including spiritual faith healers and...

Bringing Power Relations into the Study of Medical Pluralism

Despite the validity of Brodwin's comments on the shortcomings of much of the research on medical pluralism, not all scholars interested in new theoretical concerns dropped their interest in medical pluralism. Indeed, various anthropologists interested in the political economy of health, including Crandon-Malamud, Brodwin, and Baer, developed an interest in how power relations shape plural medical systems. While within the context of complex societies, one medical system tends to exert, with the support of strategic elites, dominance over other medical systems, people are quite capable of dual use of distinct medical subsystems. Subaltern groups, including lower social classes, racial and ethnic minorities, and women, have often utilized and continue to utilize alternative medical systems as a forum for challenging not only biomedical dominance but also, to a degree, the hegemony of ruling groups around the world. Unfortunately, according to Elling (1981, p. 97), Traditional medicine...

Theoretical Orientations and Methods in Nutritional Anthropology

What foods people eat and how much they eat are determined not simply by physiological needs, but also by political and ecological factors that determine the availability of food, and cultural factors that shape the acceptability and preparation of food. Therefore, it is not surprising that the biocultural approach has been widely used in nutritional anthropology. This is also reflected in the title of a recent edited volume on nutritional anthropology Nutritional Anthropology Biocultural Perspectives on Food and Nutrition (Goodman, Dufour, & Pelto, 2000). Evolution and adaptation are central theoretical concepts in the biocul-tural or ecological approaches. Biological anthropologists have tried to assess the role of nutrition in human evolution and adaptation to different physical environments and climates. They have attempted to understand subsistence patterns and nutrition, population differences in nutrient utilization, and the evolution of favorable nutritional patterns, cooking...

Introduction To The New Biology

If they are not machines, then what are organisms A metaphor far more to my liking is this Imagine a child playing in a woodland stream, poking a stick into an eddy in the flowing current, thereby disrupting it. But the eddy quickly reforms. The child disperses it again. Again it reforms, and the fascinating game goes on. There you have it Organisms are resilient patterns in a turbulent flow-pattern in an energy flow. A simple flow metaphor, of course, fails to capture much of what the organism is. None of our representations of an organism captures it in its entirety. But the flow metaphor does begin to show us the organism's (and biology's) essence. And it is becoming increasingly clear that to understand living systems in any deep sense, we must come to see them not materialistically, as machines, but as stable, complex, dynamic organizations.

Holistic New Age and Folk Medicine

During the last few decades of the twentieth century, the holistic healing movement led a surge of popular interest in therapies based on an explicitly religious, or quasi-religious, interpretation of the healing process. The precise meaning of the term holistic medicine varies among healing systems. Among its meanings are emphasis upon natural therapies, patient education and responsibility, prevention, and treating patients as whole people. Also common to holistic healing is the basic assumption that, as one handbook put it, every human being is a unique, wholistic, interdependent relationship of body, mind, emotions, and spirit. The term spirit, alongside body, mind, and emotions, carries holistic healing beyond psychosomatic medical models it also represents commitment to a belief in the interpenetration of physical and nonphysical spheres of causality. Even holistic healing's exhortations concerning reliance upon the body's own regenerative and reparative processes are typically...

Marriage Also called bride wealth bridewealth or bride wealth See bride price

Chinese medical system (or Han medicine). A professional medical system originating thousands of years ago that emphasizes harmony and balance between humans and nature and between the systems of the body. Disease is defined in terms of imbalance which must be restored. The medical system is holistic in that in diagnosis and treatment everything about the patient must be considered treatments are individualized. chiropractic. A healing system based on the theory that diseases often result from a lack of normal nerve function. Chiropractic treatments include manipulation and specific adjustment of body structures, such as the spine, as well as physical therapy.

Popular and Professional Ideas about Risk

Medicine Clinical Epidemiology Cartoons

As we saw in Chapter 6, it is dangerous to assume that a scientist works with one monolithic community rather than a community fac-tionalized by competing voices and interests. For example, the Canadian group needed to account for the possibility that women would report and request services for health concerns that differed from those reported and requested by men. In similar fashion, aboriginal health workers who sought to reinforce local knowledge wanted to describe and measure local healing practices, but they also were concerned that questions about traditional healing might offend community members who followed evangelical Christian practices.

Jungs Theory Of Personality

Term constructive as opposed to Freud's term reductive in this unification process). Jung's psychic energy theory of personality, psychoanalysis, and therapeutic practice became widely known as analytical psychology, wherein he formulated his unique notions about the myths and symbols that people have used throughout centuries of recorded history (e.g., the term mana denotes a supernatural life force, usually originating from the spirit world and that may be concentrated in other people or objects and inherited transmitted between people, conferring ritual power or high social status numinosum - Jung's term for a type of involuntary mystical religious experience, or dynamic agency effect, not caused by an arbitrary act of will, whereby the individual is seized and controlled by the force energy whatever its causes uroboros -an ancient circular symbol depicting a snake or dragon swallowing its own tail, and represents unity infinity this symbol was interpreted by Jung as a metaphor for...

McNaughton Rulesprinciples

The theory of vitalism (which holds that a vital force, not explicable by chemical, mechanical, or physical principles, is the basic cause of life) and the theory of organicism (a version of holism that emphasizes the notion that the parts of living organisms are only what they are due to their contributions to the whole being.) The theory of vitalism had its origins in the field of chemistry, in particular in the classification of compounds in 1675 by the French chemist Nicolas Lemery (16451715), and by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794). In 1815, the Swedish chemist Johan J. Berzelius (17791848) proposed a distinction between organic and inorganic compounds which are governed by different laws for example, organic compounds are produced under the influence of a vital force, and are incapable of being prepared artificially. In 1828, this distinction was eclipsed when the German chemist Friedrich Wohler (1800-1882) synthesized the organic compound urea from an...

Possession Religions as Worship and Tradition

As Suryani and Jensen (1993, p. 46) write In Bali, ritual possession is common, controlled, desirable, socially useful, highly valued, socially reinforced by society and individually satisfying. Balinese Possession Trance occurs in numerous contexts the work of traditional healers (balian), masked ritual dramas, kris dancers, hobby horse dancers, little girl trance dancers, and so forth. Among forms of Possession Trance considered aberrant and sometimes requiring biomedical intervention are incidents of collective dissociation among school girls and attacks of amok among men. Traditional people may be caught in a conflict between two different explanatory systems (Kleinman, 1980). Possession Trance linked to long-term relationships with one or more spirits involves the development of what appear to be secondary or alternative personalities. This may be seen by psychiatrists as D(issociative) I(den-ity) D(isorder), often referred to as Multiple Personality (Bourguignon, 1989b Suryani &...

Past and Personal History

History of alcohol consumption, substance abuse and exposure to various toxins should be elicited and documented. Whether consumption of large amount of alcohol, especially adulterated alcohol, is a risk factor for epilepsy is not certain.19 But in a study in Togo,15 attributed epilepsy to alcohol consumption in 8 of the 237 patients studied. The tropical world is the major region for the production and distribution of narcotics. In the developing world psychotropic drug consumption is on the rise. Over indulgence of substance abuse can provoke epileptic seizures.30 Benzene hexachloride, a pesticide used in India, has been associated with seizures.31 Consumption of certain fruits can result in fatal convulsive encephalopathy, this is more often described during famine. In Burkina Faso and other African countries epidemics of fatal convulsive encephalopathy in children have been reported following consumption of unripe ackee fruit (Blighia sapida).32,33 The traditional healers provoke...

Universal Phenomena or Cultural Variables

In societies where resources are shared or accessible to able-bodied adults and where both sexes play important roles in the production of food and other necessities, sexual aggression is rare. Rape is reportedly rare among the Ituri forest foragers in Africa (Turnbull, 1961), the Kalahari desert foragers in southwest Africa (Lee, 1984 Marshall, 1976), and the Kaulong gardeners in New Guinea (Goodale, 1980). Rape is common in some tribal societies, especially those faced with depleting food resources, migration, or other factors contributing to a pervasive sense that human beings are dependent on male efforts to control natural forces (Sanday, 1990a, p. 8). Among the Yanomamo and Mundurucu in South America, warfare is endemic and gang rape and the abduction of women in raids are common (Chagnon, 1997 Murphy & Murphy, 1974). Child sexual abuse is rarely reported for egalitarian societies. However, it is not uncommon for children to engage in sexual play, and for...

Ritual as Prophylaxis Funerals Mourning and the Work of Remembering

Not only rituals that are directed to healing illness, but other more general rituals may have a beneficial emotional or psychological effect on participants. Life crisis rituals and rites of passage deal with important crises or transitions in life which necessarily have personal meaning, and can stir up emotional conflict (Herdt, 1981, 1982). Victor Turner (1967) has written extensively on such rituals, and his formulations on ritual symbols are helpful in thinking about the personal issues dealt with in the ritual as well as the social issues of the transition. An especially helpful concept is his notion of the bipolar symbol that ritual symbols have both an ideological pole, which represents important social values asserted in the ritual, and an orectic pole, an aspect of the symbol that (often in a vivid way) calls up desires and emotions which may either reinforce the social values represented by the symbol, or be at odds with them, but which are in any case often unconscious....

Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity

There is no clear evidence that obese individuals eat more or exercise less than their nonobese peers. Methods of measuring energy intakes and outputs are not precise when used over time and in community settings. The range of normal requirements and normal basal metabolic rates is large and obscures the energy imbalances of individuals. However, for the individual, obesity occurs when energy intake (food) exceeds the energy expenditure (basal metabolism, physical activity, growth, counteracting infection, maintaining body temperature, and ther-modynamic action of food).

Dietary Fats and Oils and Cholesterol

Dietary fat serves critical functions in the human body. It provides a concentrated source of energy, slightly more than twice per gram than protein or carbohydrate. For this reason, the causes of energy imbalances are often attributed to this component of the diet. However, definitive data in this area are lacking.

Anthropologists in Health and Economic Development

In the 1950s, applied medical anthropologists were engaged in international public health to examine cultural barriers to health promotion and health campaigns and to design health programs that would be deemed culturally appropriate by local populations ( the natives ). Their role was to interpret community structures and help foreign or foreign-trained health technicians to implement top-down development programs (Farmer & Good, 1991, p. 137). There was, at the time, little critical reflection on the purpose of such programs or on the perceived needs of the populations the programs sought to serve. Studies of traditional healers, including birth attendants, proliferated at this time. Later, the anthropologists who produced such work were criticized as being handmaidens of biomedicine and cheerleaders of the Western medical industrial complex.

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

Saprotrophic wood-decay fungi play a pivotal role in the ecology of forests as they are the principal agents of wood and chitin decomposition and hence nutrient and energy fluxes (Dighton 1997). Unsurprisingly, fungi therefore represent the dominant microbial biomass of the forest floor and soils of many forest ecosystems, of which 60 may be due to decomposer basidiomycetes. Energy flow through woodland ecosystems is ultimately dependent on a limited mineral nutrient availability. Consequently, the balanced cycling of mineral nutrients within woodlands is central to ecosystem

Ethical And Legal Issues

Alternative medicine covers a dizzyingly heterogeneous group of medical theories and practices. Alternatives range from the different forms of faith healing, Christian Science, and folk medicine to allegedly scientific systems like homeopathy, chiropractic, and visualization therapy. Also included under the term are acupuncture herbalism iridology the traditional medicines of India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and indigenous peoples holistic medicine naturopathy (treatment using agents or elements found in nature) shamanism yoga radiesthesia (therapy based on detection of natural waves of force emanating from nature) color healing aromatherapy transcendental meditation crystal therapy thalassotherapy (treatment based on sea bathing, sea voyages, etc.) massage therapy midwifery and many others. Certain shared negative elements justify lumping together such diverse medical theories and practices. They include marginal social standing or fringe status exclusion from mainline...

Biomedical Recommendations for Home Treatment

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international agencies involved in the control and management of diarrheal diseases, dehydration prevention, and rehydration therapy have undertaken many programs and studies to determine the best medical, practical, feasible, and acceptable methods for preventing and treating diarrhea and dehydration. The general conclusions suggest that prevention of dehydration is the best home treatment procedure. However, most studies demonstrate that caregivers have difficulty in mixing the proper amounts of salts, sugars, and water, especially in making the mixture over-concentrated. This in itself can pose a danger for dehydration by pulling water into the intestine through osmosis and increasing diarrheal output. Traditional home preparations of fluids and foods are now encouraged, especially continued breast-feeding when applicable. If feeding, particularly fluids containing nutrients and calories, are continued throughout the diarrheal event,...

Superposition Hypothesis

Encing environmental outcomes - via various faith-healing, magical-thinking, or animistic practices and behaviors (such as genuflecting, saying prayers, or singing chants) that are designed to protect the self or others, and to alter the environment in some optimal fashion (e.g., it is possible that the rain dances and other magical practices of certain American Indian tribes originated in this way a dance was performed initially at some random time and it just happened to rain after during the dance there was no functional relationship between the two events, but accidental contingencies were established that served to maintain the behavior in the future). In defense of superstitious control behavior, some psychologists maintain that it serves a positive psychological function in that it may limit or eliminate the development of learned helplessness and its debilitating effects. See also LEARNED HELPLESSNESS EFFECT SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. REFERENCES

Native Peoples And Animals

Spencer, Colin, The Heretic's Feast A History Of Vegetarianism (London Fourth Estate, 1993) Tobias, Michael, The Anthropology of Conscience, Society and Animals 4(1) (1996) 65-73 Tobias, Michael, Life Force The World ofJainism (Fremont, CA Asian Humanities Press, 1991) Tobias, Michael, A Naked Man (Fremont, CA Jain Publishing, 1994) Tobias, Michael (Ed.), Mountain People (Norman University of Oklahoma Press, 1986).

Nutrient Cycling

When grazing animals reduce biomass and litter and or change plant species composition, nutrient cycling and energy flow can also be altered. This alteration has an indirect effect on biodiversity in that changes in nutrient cycling can initiate changes in habitat diversity. If grazing animals suppress nitrogen-fixing plants, less nitrogen may be available to the system. Because herbivores feed selectively, their food items usually have higher nutrient content than vegetation not selected. These same highly digestible plants are also those that, if allowed to become litter, would decompose relatively rapidly. If grazing is not managed to prevent the decline of preferred forage plants and the concomitant increase of unpalatable, less-degradable plants, rates of nutrient cycling may decline. Aboveground herbivory can decrease aboveground biomass, belowground production, soil elevation, and expansion of the root zone. Grazing can have a negative effect on the soil-building process.

Philip H Warren

Current interest in the role of body size in food webs is certainly not just an historical hangover. In fact the importance of size as an organizing factor in food webs lay largely unexplored for a long time after Elton's suggestions were made. Ideas about trophic organization soon began to embrace the concepts of energy flow and community stability. The former, developing out of the work of Lindeman (Lindeman, 1942), leading to an emphasis on describing food webs in terms of energy flow among functional groupings of organisms, or among trophic levels and laying the groundwork for the International Biological Program and a 'systems' approach to understanding communities (McIntosh, 1985). Elton, writing later (Elton and Miller, 1954, p. 464), accepted the role of energy as a fundamental ecological currency, linking the physiological and Another significant consequence of the emphasis on energy flow and trophic level was the subtle transition from Elton's pyramid of numbers, to the...

Yuri Khripin Summary

The Amplifluor method for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping provides homogeneous assays that utilize a pair of universal energy transfer-labeled primers. The main advantage of this single-step, loci-independent, low-cost method is that it can be readily adapted for new SNPs. The development of any new SNP assay requires only the design and synthesis of three conventional oligonucleotides. Furthermore, Amplifluor-based SNP assays require instrumentation found in most laboratories including a thermocyler and fluorescent plate-reader. Here, we provide detailed protocols for primer design, both manually and using AssayArchitect software. Protocols for SNP analysis are provided along with more than 100 examples for common polymorphisms. Specific cases including polymorphisms caused by the insertion deletion of nucleotides, and dealing with the AT- and GC-rich sequences are addressed and discussed in detail.

Disensoulment

In the ancient Middle East, the cradle of Western culture, where animal husbandry was the key to nation and wealth building, agrarian societies invented misothery* and other ideas that aided the debasement of animals. There, the builders of the bustling city-states preached misothery in their arts and in their rising, new agrarian religions. In these, the essential message was to debase animals and nature and to elevate human beings over them. The effect, spiritually speaking, was to turn the world upside down before domestication,* the powerful souls or supernaturals (or ''gods'') were animals, and primal people looked up to them after domestication, the gods were ''humanoid,'' and people looked down on animals. In primal culture, all beings had souls, of which the greatest was the tribe's totem animal in agriculture, humans alone have souls, and god is in human form. Animal-using agrarians stripped animals of their souls and powers and put them in what they perceived to be their...

Judaism

A prohibition against mixing meat and dairy products is based on the biblical injunction 'You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk' (Exodus 23 19). After eating milk, hand washing and mouth rinsing is all that is necessary before eating meat however, depending on local custom, from 1 to 6h must elapse after eating meat and before eating milk. Margarine and milk and cream substitutes have made this particular law easier to follow Nevertheless, many observant Jews view the use of such substitutes as being spiritually wrong. In Israel, there has been a continuing historical struggle over the banning of pig rearing and pork eating. However, these practices continue today, pork being eaten by Christians and nonobservant Jews.

Hinduism

Observance of dietary prohibitions is strictest in the upper Brahmin caste while beef (and pork) eating is tolerated amongst lower castes, for whom it may be an important source of supplementary protein. For these castes, giving up meat eating is one way to attempt to improve their social status. The caste system is an excellent example of the way in which social structure influences food practices. Concepts of purity and pollution determine who may eat what with whom and who may accept what food from whom. Eating with, or accepting food from, members of a lower class is polluting. In the hot-cold classification system used in traditional healing raw foods are considered to be 'hot' and are therefore purer than cooked foods, which are 'cold.' Brahmins who accept food cooked by a lower caste person lose ritual purity and thus caste status however, they may accept ghee (clarified butter) and milk for these are products of the sacred cow and cannot be polluted by touch.

Reflexology

Reflexology is a system of massage through reflex points on the feet to relieve tension and help illness. Other areas that can be used are the head and hands, but it is most commonly the feet that are used. Foot massage came from China and originated there over 5000 years ago. Different parts of the body and body organs are aligned to areas on the soles of the feet and treatment is by pressure and massage. Again, it is often the combined pressure and massage associated with therapeutic touch that helps the patient to relax and the gut to cease spasmodic action.

Special Formulations

Arginine, also a nonessential amino acid in healthy subjects, first attracted attention for its immunoen-hancing properties, wound-healing benefits, and improved survival in animal models of sepsis and injury. As with glutamine, the benefits of experimental arginine supplementation during stress states are diverse. Clinical studies in which arginine was administered enterally have demonstrated net nitrogen

The Folk Sector

The folk sector is an ill-defined area with its 'practitioners' aiming at holistic treatment of their patient. Such 'practitioners are faith healers, herbalists, clairvoyants, and the forms of diagnosis and healing are to be found in complementary and alternative medicine, with as many as 13 of the population seeking help from a complementary or alternative therapist every year' (Fulder, 1988). The herbal practitioner believes that disease is an imbalance of the physiological mental emotional well-being of the body. The Community Health Foundation considers that the definition of health is not just when there is an absence of pain and discomfort, but that wellness is a relationship between that person and his or her family, friends, environment and working life. Before the Midwives Act of 1902, when midwifery became registerable, it was considered part of the folk sector along with faith healing and herbalism. The earliest description of the use of herbal remedies can be traced back...

Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is massage using aromatic plant extracts and essential oils and has become increasingly popular in the western world. As with herbalism, it is believed that plants have healing properties and their scent can affect mood and stress levels. Aromatherapy massage brings together two areas, the scent of the plants being used in massage oil and the touch of the masseuse. Although the true termination of therapeutic touch is in the realm of healing, where the healer holds his or her hands over the afflicted area without actual contact with the body, in aromatherapy it is recognized that touch in massage has a therapeutic value.

Metabolism

The extraction of energy is a primary function of metabolism and provides the driving force that determines the direction taken by the different biochemical pathways. The universal energy currency used to move and supply energy to various pathways is a high-energy compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Figure MT.2 also shows how there are three levels of reactions involved in harvesting energy

Spiritual Healing Handbook

Spiritual Healing Handbook

A lot of people today are turning to alternative medicines to treat ailment, illnesses, and diseases. Besides this there are also alternative therapies that can also address medical problems successfully.

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