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Recent Advances in Foldamers Based on Solvophobic Effects

We classify solvophobic foldamers into four categories: (a) foldamers stabilized by adjacent identical aromatic units, (b) foldamers stabilized by adjacent donor-acceptor aromatic units, (c) foldamers stabilized by nonadjacent aromatic units, and (d) foldamers stabilized by aliphatic units. Here, ''adjacent'' and ''non-adjacent'' refer to the relationship of units that contribute significantly to the folding energy (Figs. 3.2a and b). The simplest aromatic foldamer one can envision consists of identical aromatic units tethered by spacers (Fig. 3.2a). In such a structure, the interacting units are separated only by noninteracting spacers. Such a foldamer is considered to be stabilized by adjacent aromatic units even if nonin-teracting aromatic units may be found in the spacer. The structure in Fig. 3.2b, on the other hand, has the interacting units (A-B or C-D) separated by spacers as well as another contributing aromatic unit (C or B), and is classified as fol-damers stabilized by nonadjacent units.

Fig. 3.2 Schematic representation of foldamers stabilized by (a) adjacent and (b) nonadjacent aromatic units. A, B, C, and D represent interacting aromatic units. X is the spacer between the aromatic units. Dotted lines denote solvophobic, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions associated with aromatic interactions.

Fig. 3.2 Schematic representation of foldamers stabilized by (a) adjacent and (b) nonadjacent aromatic units. A, B, C, and D represent interacting aromatic units. X is the spacer between the aromatic units. Dotted lines denote solvophobic, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions associated with aromatic interactions.

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