Animal Models of Brain Degeneration in Parkinsons Disease

Among the chronic brain degenerative diseases, PD has the best characterized and most consistent models. Although the underlying mechanism of disease in these models may be significantly different from the human condition, they reproduce rather closely the pathology in the final stages of dopaminergic degeneration in PD and constitute a crucial basis to test novel therapies. Due to its well-defined neuroanatomical distribution, the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway can be le-sioned or severed at various locations and the benefit of various cell grafting methods can be studied. Because this approach is more labor intensive and sometimes postsurgical complications may interfere with the experimental results, most investigators prefer to use chemical lesioning. The best characterized and most extensively used models are the rat 6-OHDA and the primate and murine (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) (MPTP) models. Both are based on the induction of a cytotoxic lesion in the dopami-nergic neuronal population of the substantia nigra, resulting in massive or complete loss of striatal projections. The neurologic deficits can then be measured in various functional assays and now through PET imaging for dopamine connectivity. The autopsy findings are remarkable for many similarities with the human PD brain.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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