Autonomic Function

Stimulation in area 24 has been shown to elicit almost every type of autonomic response—including changes in blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, pupillary dilation, skin conductance, thermoregulation, and gastrointestinal motility—as well as causing changes in adrenal cortical hormone secretion (ACTH). Stimulation in the cingulate cortex can also lead to vocalizations. The evoked activity is usually linked to the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in visceromo-tor, as opposed to skeletomotor, function because the vocalizations are limited in number and have affective content.

Although lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex have little or no effect on baseline autonomic function, there is evidence that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in autonomic conditioning (i.e., the development of autonomic responses to stimuli that are predictive of events, such as electric shocks, that evoke autonomic responses). Neurons in the anterior cingu-late cortex show changes in activity as animals learn such contingencies, and lesions of the anterior cingu-late cortex greatly reduce autonomic changes induced by the presentation of predictive stimuli. Lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex also change affective responses in more complex situations. Changes following ablation have been characterized in terms of blunted affect, reduced aggression, decreased motivation, and the disruption of mating and social behavior.

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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