Autonomic Function

Stimulation in area 24 has been shown to elicit almost every type of autonomic response—including changes in blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, pupillary dilation, skin conductance, thermoregulation, and gastrointestinal motility—as well as causing changes in adrenal cortical hormone secretion (ACTH). Stimulation in the cingulate cortex can also lead to vocalizations. The evoked activity is usually linked to the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in visceromo-tor, as opposed to skeletomotor, function because the vocalizations are limited in number and have affective content.

Although lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex have little or no effect on baseline autonomic function, there is evidence that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in autonomic conditioning (i.e., the development of autonomic responses to stimuli that are predictive of events, such as electric shocks, that evoke autonomic responses). Neurons in the anterior cingu-late cortex show changes in activity as animals learn such contingencies, and lesions of the anterior cingu-late cortex greatly reduce autonomic changes induced by the presentation of predictive stimuli. Lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex also change affective responses in more complex situations. Changes following ablation have been characterized in terms of blunted affect, reduced aggression, decreased motivation, and the disruption of mating and social behavior.

Sleeping Sanctuary

Sleeping Sanctuary

Salvation For The Sleep Deprived The Ultimate Guide To Sleeping, Napping, Resting And  Restoring Your Energy. Of the many things that we do just instinctively and do not give much  of a thought to, sleep is probably the most prominent one. Most of us sleep only because we have to. We sleep because we cannot stay awake all 24 hours in the day.

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