A summary of the major stimuli of the chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the gut have been provided in Fig. 2. Gastrointestinal trauma following the accidental or deliberate injestion of toxic materials such as alcohol is the single most common cause of nausea and emesis in Certain chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin or radiation used in the treatment of
cancer cause considerable damage to gut tissue, including the enterochromaffin cells. These contain 5-HT and it is hypothesized that damage causes the release of 5-HT to stimulate 5-HT3 receptor located on the vagus afferent nerve fibers. This will depolarize the vagus nerve and trigger the emetic reflex.
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