Nonpharmacological Treatment

Nonpharmacological treatments include behavioral methods and psychological treatment. Behavioral methods include biofeedback, relaxation techniques, and reinforcement of maintaining a regular schedule, exercise, healthy diet, and regular sleep. There are several modalities of biofeedback; one can monitor body temperature on electromyography. The final goal is the same: the extinction of pain behavior. Relaxation techniques include progressive muscle relaxation and imaginary- and suggestion-based relaxation. These treatments have been proven to be useful for children, pregnant women, and patients for whom stress is a major trigger.

Many patients (34-40%) consult alternative practitioners. Neck manipulation, acupuncture, hypnosis, and herbal therapy are sometimes used. There are no well-designed clinical trials to validate their efficacy.

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