Theoretical Developments Carrolls and Horns Theories

Two of the major new theories proposed during the past decade are Carroll's and Horn's theories. The two theories are both hierarchical, suggesting more general abilities higher in the hierarchy and more specific abilities lower in the hierarchy. Carroll's theory will be described briefly as representative of these new developments.

Carroll proposed his hierarchical model of intelligence based on the factor analysis of more than 460 data sets obtained between 1927 and 1987. His analysis encompasses more than 130,000 people from diverse walks of life and even countries of origin (although non-English-speaking countries are poorly represented among his data sets). The model Carroll proposed, based on his monumental undertaking, is a hierarchy comprising three strata: stratum I, which includes many narrow, specific abilities (e.g., spelling ability and speed of reasoning); stratum II, which includes various group-factor abilities (e.g., fluid intelligence, which is involved in flexible thinking and seeing things in novel ways, and crystallized intelligence, the accumulated knowledge base); and stratum III, which is a single general intelligence, much like Spearman's 1904 general intelligence factor.

Of these strata, the most interesting is perhaps the middle stratum, which includes, in addition to fluid and crystallized abilities, learning and memory processes, visual perception, auditory perception, facile production of ideas (similar to verbal fluency), and speed (which includes both sheer speed of response and speed of accurate responding). Although Carroll does not break much new ground, in that many of the abilities in his model have been mentioned in other theories, he does masterfully integrate a large and diverse factor-analytic literature, thereby giving great authority to his model.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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