The work summarized in this article was performed in the context of the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) (principal support by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH45294). The San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) group is affiliated with the University of California, San Diego, the Naval Hospital, San Diego, and the San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System and includes the following: director, Igor Grant, codirectors, J. Hampton Atkinson, J. Allen McCutchan; center manager, Thomas D. Marcotte; Naval Hospital, San Diego, Mark R. Wallace; neuromedical component, J. Allen McCutchan, Ronald J. Ellis, Scott Letendre, and Rachel Schrier; neurobehavioral component, Robert K. Heaton, Mariana Cherner, and Julie Rippeth; imaging component, Terry Jernigan, and John Hesselink; neuropathology component, Eliezer Masliah; clinical trials component, J. Allen McCutchan, J. Hampton Atkinson, Ronald J. Ellis, and Scott Letendre; data management unit, Daniel R. Masys and Michelle Frybarger, (data systems manager); statistics unit, Ian Abramson, Reena Deutsch, and Tanya Wolfson.

See Also the Following Articles


Suggested Reading

Centers for Disease Control (1992). 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. Morbidity Mortality Weeky Rep. 41, 1-19.

Ellis, R. J., Hsia, K., Spector, S. A., Nelson, J. A., Heaton, R. K., Wallace, M. R., Abramson, I., Atkinson, J. H., Grant, I., McCutchan, J. A., and the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group (1997). Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels are elevated in neurocognitively impaired individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 42, 679-688.

Grant, I., and Atkinson, J. H. (1999). Neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV infection and AIDS. In Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/VII (B. J. Sadock and V. A. Sadock, Eds.), pp. 308-335. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Grant, I., Atkinson, J. H., Hesselink, J. R., Kennedy, C. J., Richman, D.D., Spector, S. A., and McCutchan, J. A. (1987). Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections: Studies with neuropsycho-logic testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Ann. Intern. Med. 107, 828-836.

Grant, I., Olshen, R. A., Atkinson, J. H., Heaton, R. K., Nelson, J., McCutchan, J. A., and Weinrich, J. D. (1993). Depressed mood does not explain neuropsychological deficits in HIV-infected persons. Neuropsychology 7, 53-61.

Heaton, R. K., Velin, R. A., McCutchan, J. A., Gulevich, S. J., Atkinson, J. H., Wallace, M. R., Godfrey, H. P. D., Kirson, D. A., Grant, I., and the HNRC group (1994). Neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infection: Implications for employment. Psychosom. Med. 56, 8-17.

Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., Butters, N., White, D. A., Kirson, D., Atkinson, J. H., McCutchan, J. A., Taylor, M. J., Kelly, M. D., Ellis, R. J., Wolfson, T., Velin, R., Marcotte, T. D., Hesselink, J. R., Jernigan, T. L., Chandler, J., Wallace, M., Abramson, I., and the HNRC group (1995). The HNRC 500—Neuropsychology of HIV infection at different disease stages. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 1, 231-251.

Heaton, R. K., Marcotte, T. D., White, D. A., Ross, D., Meredith, K., Taylor, M. J., Kaplan, R., and Grant, I. (1996). Nature and vocational significance of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV infection [Published erratum appears in Clin. Neuropsychol. 10, 236, 1996]. Clin. Neuropsychol. 10, 1-14.

Lipton, S. T., and Gendelman, H. E. (1995). Dementia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 934-940.

Marcotte, T. D., Heaton, R. K., Wolfson, T., Taylor, M. J., Alhassoon, O., Arfaa, K., Grant, I., and the HNRC group (1999). The impact of HIV-related neuropsychological dysfunction on driving behavior. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 5, 579-592.

Masliah, E., Ge, N., Achim, C. L., DeTeresa, R., and Wiley, C. A. (1996). Patterns of neurodegeneration in HIV encephalitis. NeuroAIDS 1, 161-173.

Masliah, E., Ge, N., and Mucke, L. (1996). Pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurodegeneration. Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 10, 57-67.

Masliah, E., Heaton, R. K., Marcotte, T. D., Ellis, R. J., Wiley, C. A., Mallory, M., Achim, C. L., McCutchan, J. A., Nelson, J. A., Atkinson, J. H., Grant, I., and the HNRC group (1997). Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. Ann. Neurol. 42,963972.

Mayeux, R., Stern, Y., Tang, M.-X., Todak, G., Marder, K., Sano, J., Richard, M., Stein, Z., Ehrhardt, A., and Gorman, J. (1993). Mortality risks in gay men with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cognitive impairment. Neurology 43, 176-182.

McArthur, J. C., and Grant, I. (1998). HIV neurocognitive disorders. In Neurology of AIDS (H. E. Gendelman, S. Lipton, L. Epstein, and S. Swindells, Eds.), pp. 499-523. New York, Chapman & Hall, New York.

Sanders, V., Everall, I., Johnson, R., and Masliah, E. (2000). Fibroblast growth factor modulates HIV co-receptor CXCR4 expression by neural cells. J. Neurosci. Res. 59, 671-679.

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