Acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS results from

infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV infection is associated with destruction of certain immune cells, most notably the CD4 or "helper" T lymphocytes, leading ultimately to collapse of cellmediated immunity and consequent susceptibility to various types of "opportunistic" infections and cancers. In the course of HIV disease, virus enters the central nervous system and this can result in disturbances in neurocognitive function—that is, deficits in mental processes such as attention, learning, remembering, problem solving, speed of information processing, and various sensory and motor abnormalities. In addition to the direct effects of HIV on brain function and structure, late complications that involve infection of the brain by other pathogens or development of neoplasia or vascular disturbances can also contribute to neurocognitive complications in late-stage HIV disease.

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