B A Model of Encoding and Memory Storage

Memory researchers believe that after sensory information is processed by the neocortex, it is sent along parallel pathways to the hippocampal cortices and medial diencephalon for memory processing. During encoding, associations are created among stimulus features. These associations serve as indices to the cortical sites where the information was originally processed. Input from the basal forebrain and pre-frontal cortex modulates memory processing and tags the newly learned information with temporal and spatial information.

Once memories are formed, they must be stored in such a way as to be searched and accessed at a later time when the information is needed. One possibility is that long-term memories are stored in the same brain structures in which new memories are formed. Research on amnesic patients, however, suggests that this is unlikely. Patient H.M., for example, lost the ability to form new memories following bilateral removal of medial temporal lobe structures, but he was able to recall previously learned information normally. This suggests that after new memories are formed they are transferred elsewhere for long-term storage. Researchers believe that permanent memory storage develops in the neocortex; however, the exact nature of the stored information is not known. It remains unclear, for example, whether information is stored regionally or more diffusely throughout the brain and whether memories are stored as basic elemental forms or in more complex formats.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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