B MRIBased Morphometry

MRI-based morphometric measures show a correlation between size of the right anterior cingulate region and performance on an attention switching task in 6-to 18-year-olds (see Fig. 3). The larger the anterior cingulate region, the faster the performance on the attention switching task that required the subject to switch from attending to color to attending to shape, alternating from trial to trial. This region did not correlate with a simple nonswitching attentional task, suggesting its involvement in tasks that have atten-tional conflict or require cognitive control. Even after correcting for total brain size and estimated IQ, the correlation remained significant, suggesting that the association was not a general one but specific to this brain region. Yet this association is indirect in that the two measures are assessed at different time points.



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