Skeletomotor Functions

Lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex can cause contralateral motor neglect. Stimulation of the CMAs evoke skeletomotor movements, although with lower probability and a higher stimulation threshold than the primary motor cortex. The evoked movements are typically fast, brief, limited to a single joint, and demonstrate a topographical organization. Complementary to these findings, single-unit recordings have shown that neuronal activity in the CMAs precedes voluntary movements. Neurons in CMAr are more activated during self-paced than stimulus-triggered movements and may precede the movement by long lead times (0.5-2 sec). In contrast, activity in the caudal CMAs shows less specificity to self-paced movements and is characterized by shorter lead times preceding the movement. Findings have linked CMA activity, particularly in CMAr neurons, to reward-based response selection tasks. Different CMA neural populations are active during the learning of new reward contingencies and during the execution of familiar, well-learned responses.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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