VIP was originally isolated from the porcine small intestine in the early 1970s by Dr. Said in the laboratory of Professor Mutt. The peptide has been shown to consist of a 28-amino acid residue with a C-terminal a-amidation. It shows structural similarities to the so-called glucagon family of peptides, i.e., glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and secretin. There is a high degree of identity in the VIP sequence between different species. For example, human, porcine, and rat VIPs are identical, differing from guinea pig VIP in only two amino acids. The human gene coding for VIP is located on chromosome 6q24 and contains seven
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VIP HSDAV FT DN YTR LRKQMAVKKYLN S I L N * Glucagon HSQGT FTSDYSKYLDS R RAQDFVQW LMNT hPHM HADGVFTSDFS KLLGQ L S A KKYLE S LM* Secretin HS DGTFTSE LSRLRE GA R LQRLL Q G LV* hGIP YAEGTFISDYSIAMDKI HQQDFVNWLLAQK 31 35 40
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